- Slides: 18
Nature vs. Nurture - Twin Studies. STEPHANIE PRECIADO
Identical twins Ø Identical twins are formed when one fertilized egg divides into two separate embryos to make two babies. Ø The two embryos can share a single placenta and can be in the same or different sac. Ø Since identical twins come from the same fertilized egg, they have the exact same DNA. Ø They are always the same sex and they have the same blood type and can have the same finger tips
Fraternal Twins Ø Fraternal twins make up approximately 75% of the twin population and can be boy/boy, girl/girl, or boy/girl sets. Ø Fraternal, or "dizygotic" Ø Fraternal twins are two separate eggs fertilized by two separate sperm to form two separate embryos and then make two separate babies. Ø The genetic makeup of dizygotic twins is different, so they are not identical. these twins share half of their genes, just like any other pair of siblings.
How are identical twins similar and different? Ø Identical twins have the same DNA therefore they will have physical and other similarities Ø they can also look different from one another. Ø The environment in which they were in when they were in the womb can cause the twins to be different. Ø The environment in which they grew up in once they were born can also be a factor in why they are physically different.
How are fraternal twins similar and different? Ø Fraternal twins are different because they most likely came from 2 fertilized eggs and only share 50% of their DNA Ø Fraternal twins can be no more alike than siblings born years apart. Ø They can also be close to identical in their looks.
Why are identical twins so much alike? Ø Identical twins are very alike because they have the same DNA Ø Twins that were separated at birth still are very similar even though they were raised in different environments
What psychologist have studied twins? Ø Francis Galton is a psychologists that studied twins. Ø He studied the effects of nature and nurture on twins. Ø In the experiments he would do, he would study identical and fraternal twins Ø he did his research on twins based on whether they grew up together or not and if they were ever alike. Ø He studied how long it took before they started becoming different, why the became different or why they were never alike.
Nature Vs. nurture Ø The concept of nature vs. nurture is whether twins are the way they are because of their DNA (nature) or if its because of their environment (nurture). Ø This can begin from within the womb because the environment in which the mother is in affects how the twins develop in the womb. Ø Experiments used to prove whether its nature or nurture are mostly done with twins separated at birth.
Nature - Identical/fraternal twins Ø Nature on fraternal twins: Ø Ø Because fraternal twins only share half of their DNA, their personalities wouldn’t be much the same just like their looks. They would be more different at a young age and also as they grow older. Ø Nature on identical twins: Ø Ø Identical twins would be very similar because their DNA is the same. They would look the same and would change as they grow but most likely will still do many things alike.
Nurture – identical/fraternal twins separated Ø Nurture on fraternal twins: Ø Ø The environment in which the twins grow up in would also affect what they do in life because it would show them good and bad ways of life. These twins could be separated and grow up in different environments but would still have similarities because of the genes they share but the environments affect would still be present. Ø Nurture on identical twins: Ø Ø Nurture on identical twins doesn’t show as much because they are very alike. Because identical twins DNA is the same they will almost always have more than a few things in common that they do even if they grew up apart in completely different environments.
Nature vs. nurture twins separated at birth Ø The stories told about twins separated at birth can be very surprising because they can prove that both nature and nurture take part in why they are alike and different. Ø In the picture below you can see how nature and nurture took affect in the women's looks even though they were raised apart.
Nature vs. nurture twins raised together Ø Stories about twins that grew up together also proves that nature and nurture have a part in why they are so much alike and also why they are different. Ø In this picture you can see how nature took a stronger effect than nurture in their looks and their environment on the way they dress
Nature vs. nurture twins seperated at birth Ø James Arthur Springer and his identical twin, James Edward Lewis Ø these twins had met before they were called into meet by the university. Ø Yet they showed signs of the same personalities, behaviors, and attitudes when tested individually. Ø some similarities between these twins are their names, ex wives names, pets names, children’s names and some of their likes and dislikes.
Nature vs. nurture twins separated at birth Ø Daphne Goodship and Barbara Herbert Ø met when they were 40. Debbie was raised Jewish and Sharon was raised Catholic. Ø “We discovered we had a miscarriage the same year, followed by two boys and a girl in that order, ” says Barbara. Ø they laugh and fold their arms the same way.
Nature vs. nurture separated at birth Ø Debbie and Sharon Ø Debbie Mehlman and Sharon Poset were both raised under different traditions and faiths. However they were still very similar. Ø They would both cross their eyes when they became excited. Ø Segal the person that reunited them did an experiment on how they moved and said “…they can’t see each other, but they’re moving the same way. ” Ø There were some differences between the twins like Debbie likes to work out but Sharon felt she didn’t need to.
Twins similarities after being reunited Ø All the twins that were in the experiments above had many similarities that were physical and in their likes and their lives Ø Some of the similarities the twins shared were their names, jobs, same amount of children and they named them the same. Ø Even though they were separated for so long, their genes still took a part in them and made them alike.
Works cited � Classics in the History of Psychology - Galton (1875). (n. d. ). Classics in the History of Psychology - Galton (1875). Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //psychclassics. yorku. ca/Galton/twins. htm � Differences and Similarities Between Twins. (n. d. ). Differences and Similarities Between Twins. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //psychproject 8. tripod. com/id 2. html � Driscoll, K. (2007, November 1). Two of a Kind: A Study of Identical Twins and the Environment. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //serendip. brynmawr. edu/biology/b 103/f 05/web 1/kdriscoll. html � Facts About Fraternal Twins. (n. d. ). Facts About Fraternal Twins. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //www. multipletreasures. com/facts-about-fraternal-twins. php � Flais, S. (2013, May 11). The Difference Between Identical and Fraternal Twins. Healthy. Children. org. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //www. healthychildren. org/English/family-life/familydynamics/pages/The-Difference-Between-Identical-and-Fraternal. Twins. aspx
Works cited � Heredity Versus Environment: Twin, Adoption, and Family Studies. (n. d. ). Twin, � � � Adoption, and Family Studies. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //www. personalityresearch. org/papers/haimowitz. html IDENTICAL TWINS: PINPOINTING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON THE EPIGENOME. (n. d. ). Identical Twins: Pinpointing Environmental Impact on the Epigenome. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //learn. genetics. utah. edu/content/epigenetics/twins/ NEVER SAY ALWAYS. (2009, October 8). NEVER SAY ALWAYS. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //lornareiko. wordpress. com/2009/10/08/identicaltwins-who-were-separated-at-birth-what-are-they-like/ beetle. (n. d. ). Identical Twin Studies and Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //drbeetle. homestead. com/twins. html dizygotic twin. (n. d. ). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/217570/dizygotic-twin winerman, l. (n. d. ). A second look at twin studies. http: //www. apa. org. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http: //www. apa. org/monitor/apr 04/second. aspx