- Slides: 6
NATO “The leaders of NATO are creating a transatlantic monstrosity worthy of Mary Shelley. The Atlantic alliance is being buried. In its place, NATO, led by the Clinton administration, is stitching together a Frankenstinian horror: a military alliance with no clear enemy, a military alliance with rapidly diminishing capabilities but expanding geographical commitments, a military alliance that can no longer credibly defend its members, a military alliance that will degenerate into little more than a political club of first- and second-class members plus a list of applicants that may never be allowed to join”. William G. Hyland. In Carpenter and Conry: NATO Enlargement. Illusions and reality. 1998.
NATO • What happens to alliances when their original purpose has disappeared? • According to realist theory, alliances should be dismantled as soon as the threat has disappeared, and have no other purpose than deterrence or defense • According to institutionalist theories, alliances are more than just aggregations of power and national interests • To understand why NATO persisted after the Cold War we must treat it like a security institution and like any other international organisation. Not just as a military alliance • During its existence, NATO has developed multiple purposes, and its continued existence is dependent on its norms, rules and procedures • It developed multiple purposes such as transparency, integration, negotiation among members. This in its turn helped the organization to deal with the new Post-Cold War situation
NATO • NATO is a collective defence arrangement: an arrangement that is usually formalized by a treaty and an organization among participant states that commit support in defence of a member state if it is attacked by another state outside the organization • Article V in the North Atlantic treaty: an armed attack against one or more of them, in Europe or North America, shall be considered an attack against them all • An obligation with caveats: obliged to respond, but maintain the freedom to choose how they will respond • The foundation of NATO and the vision of a united Europe started with the Brussel-pact in 1948 • NATO grew from a political commitment to a political-military institution over the course of many years. The only institutional structure established by the treaty was the North Atlantic Council (NAC) • The political dimension of the alliance: Détente and Ostpolitik during the 1960 s, and the Harmel report 1968
NATO • The political structure is outlined in the North Atlantic Treaty • The development of NATO into a elaborate security institution is only partly due to Cold War circumstancessuch as the Soviet threat • Equally important is the relationship among members and the specific procedures developed to deal with internal disputes and mistrust • Those practices and procedures could be used for a range of duties and missions beyond deterrence and defense • It created a complex and multipurpose organization • Defining NATO only as a military organization against the Soviet threat is only half the story
NATO • NATO’s real transformation started in 1990 with the London declaration • NATO adopts a new strategy for the future. From a structure of collective defence, to a strategy of broad security political cooperation, I. e Cooperative security • Article V has been downplayed by NATO, focusing more on stressing its political agenda of building security through dialogue and cooperation rather than military obligations • The change of its strategical purpose resulted in a substantial reduction of conventional and nuclear forces • A determination to avoid a re-nationalization of defense policies in Europe, and to keep the U. S. Involved in european security structures
NATO • Permanent Members form the North Atlantic Council (NAC) • the North Atlantic Council are chaired by the Secretary General of NATO and, when decisions have to be made, action is agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord • Military Committee (MC): responsible for recommendations to NATO’s political authorities on measures considered necessary for the common defence of the NATO area • The NATO Parliamentary Assembly, formerly the North Atlantic Assembly