- Slides: 10
NATO April 1949: NATO alliance • 10 west European countries, the US and Canada sign the Washington Treaty • Created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Collective security system • "an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all" (article 5) NATO'S FIRST SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER EUROPE GENERAL DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER, DECEMBER 1950
NATO (1949) v United States v Luxemburg v Belgium v Netherlands v Britain v Norway v Canada v Portugal v Denmark v 1952: Greece & v France v Iceland v Italy Turkey v 1955: West Germany v 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) • Formed by the USSR to counter NATO in Europe } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania
Europe After WWII: Soviet aims Democracy and capitalism as 1. Communism under the USSR did Competing Aims practiced by the US allows for not allow for any of these things, US aims 1. Where is of property ownership freedom the Iron and participation in government. Curtain? thus being complete opposites and unable to work together. 2. The US wanted freed trade such 2. The USSR wanted to take what it that the US would BUY resources wanted and generally did not sell and then sell manufactured anything. (It did sell things to its products. allies in some cases). The two countries could not economically relate because the two systems were entirely incompatible. 3. The US wanted other countries to 3. the USSR wanted its neighbors to have freedom of action, and then have no choice but to act as choose to want to trade with the defenders of the USSR territory US, 4. USSR wanted to punish Germany 4. US wanted Germany to be strong and keep it weak so it would not so that it would not fall under attack USSR again. totalitarianism as it had after WWI.
The Arms Race } The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. } Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
Nuclear Arms Race § Reliance on nuclear weapons to keep the peace § Neither side could allow the other to get too far ahead § U. S. created CIA § Gathered info using spies § Brinkmanship - willing to go to the brink of war § If war came, both sides hoped to destroy other side's nuclear weapons before they could be used § Massive Retaliation
• Truman approves development of hydrogen bomb • 500 x more powerful than atomic bomb • Nov. 1952: 1 st U. S. hydrogen bomb exploded • 1953: USSR exploded one
• 1957: ICBM, Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles • nuclear bombs carrying missiles with ranges of over 5, 000 miles • No place on earth was safe from nuclear destruction FIRST US ATLAS ICBM USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBM
Space Race • U. S. and USSR raced to be the first to conquer space • 1957: Sputnik http: //www. history. co – first satellite (USSR) m/topics/coldwar/videos#spacest • 1961: 1 man in space race-cold-war-front – Yuri Gagarin (USSR) • Apollo program – US works to catch up • 1969: 1 st Man on the moon – Neil Armstrong (US) Discuss p. 537
Assignment Pg. 536 #3 -7