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NATIVE BRITISH WOMEN WHO RADICALIZE Tina M. Covey Research Design INTS 4739 Winter 2017
BACKGROUND Islam is the fastest growing religion in Europe, at 1%/decade. This pattern is expected to continue through 2030, when Muslims are projected to make up 8% of Europe’s population. As of 2010, the EU was home to about 13 million Muslim immigrants. Europe’s Islamist groups have long recruited converts and promoted them to senior positions. They often feel more confident than Muslims of immigrant origin to criticize government policies and defend Islamic agendas. Converts tend to be less physically visible than Muslims of immigrant origin. Jihadist converts have taken advantage of the Schengen Treaty and U. S. visawaiver programs to travel without much scrutiny. European converts have participated in most terrorist plots and actual attacks that have taken place on European soil since 9/11. At least 40 converts had a confirmed role in the plotting and/or execution of terrorist attacks in European countries in the last 20 years.
BACKGROUND Currently 3. 0 million+ Muslims living in the U. K. , 5 per cent of the population. 607, 083 Muslims reported in the 2001 census in the Greater London area. In the 2011 census Office for National Statistics, the proportion of Muslims in London had risen to 12. 4% of the population (40% of England's Muslims) 5, 200+ people convert to Islam in the UK/year, 60 per cent of them women. 1834 people were arrested in the U. K. September 2001 -December 2009 in connection with terrorism. Around half were born in the United Kingdom, the majority are British nationals. According to a 2006 poll, 28% of British Muslims hoped that Britain would one day become an "Islamic state“. British terrorists "are a diverse collection of individuals, fitting no single demographic profile, nor do they all follow a typical pathway to violent extremism“.
ORIGIN OF MUSLIM POPULATION IN LONDON/UK (OVER 100, 000) Turkish (including from Cyprus)- 250, 000 -300, 000 (UK: 500, 000) Pakistani - 240, 000 (UK: 1, 000+) Bangladeshi - 170, 000 (UK: ~500, 000) Somali - 140, 000 (UK: 200, 000 -250, 000) Iraqi - 130, 000 (UK: 240, 000) Nigerian - 120, 000 (UK: 220, 000)
RESEARCH QUESTION Do more native-born British women radicalize to join or support extremist Islamic groups than their counterparts in neighboring European nations?
HYPOTHESES H 1: Native-born British women radicalize into extremist Islamic group participation at a higher rate than their neighboring European counterparts as a result of low social inclusion and high social injustice. H 2: Native-born British women radicalize into extremist Islamic group participation at a higher rate than their neighboring European counterparts as a result of a heightened– even inflated sense of personalization, empathy and identification with the cause. H 3: Native-born British women do not radicalize into extremist Islamic group participation at a lower ate than their neighboring European counterparts. H 0: There is no obvious relationship between the radicalization rate of native-born British women and their level of social inclusion or injustice, any noted correlation being directly attributed to a sampling or experimental error.
SIGNIFICANCE By potentially identifying the causation(s) for traditionally non-Muslim nativeborn British women to actively convert to Islam and then radicalize into extremist Islamic group membership, support and/or activity, we can then try to target these causes with the intention of reversing this trend and eventually stem radicalization by generalizing these results from the study across international boundaries.
DEFINITIONS Native-born: Born and raised in Great Britain Of racially traditional British origin Mainly Anglo-Saxon or Irish At a minimum, 2 nd generation non-naturalized citizen Generation: Average 3/century, or 33 years
DEFINITIONS Radicalize: -adopting extreme ideology Membership in extremist Islamic Group or affiliated support group Provide material or labor support for these groups Perpetrate violent acts of terrorism Extremist Islamic Group: Officially recognized, banned and monitored by the British Government Currently active in the UK Lends material, labor or recruitment support for known international extremist groups Convert: One who has changed membership from one to another religious group
DEFINITIONS Social Inclusion Personal sense or experience of valuation and/or importance within surrounding society Provision of certain rights to all individuals and groups in society, such as employment, adequate housing, health care, education and training, etc. Both an outcome and a process of improving the terms on which people take part in society. Political/Social Injustice: Personal experiences or close observations of situations when some unfair practices were being carried out, to possibly include those which might not be considered moral. A situation in which the rights of a person or a group of people are ignored. When equals are treated in an unequal way; when unequals are treated in an equal way. When the dominant population is made aware of the inequity that results for others due to their relative position in the power structure.
SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA (UK) Office for National Statistics Principal areas of data collection: Business and Energy Travel and Transport Labour Market Crime and Justice Population Health and Social Care Economy Government People and Places Children, Education and Skills Agriculture and Environment
SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA (UK) National Center for Social Research Principal areas of data collection: Communities Equality & Diversity Children & Young People Crime & Justice Housing Schools, Education & Training Families Income & Work Social & Political Attitudes Health & Wellbeing Transport
SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA UK National Statistics for the Department for Education Freedom House PEW Institute CIA Factbook World Bank IMF UN Global Terrorism Database
SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA European Council for Fatwa and Research Muslim Council for Cooperation in Europe Islamic Forum of Europe Muslim Council of Britain Muslims In Britain, Guide and Directory Radicalization Awareness Network (RAN) Center of Excellence RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents
MULTIDIMENSIONAL EXPLANATORY TYPOLOGY High Social Inclusion High Social Injustice Low Social Injustice Medium Radicalization No Radicalization Low Social Inclusion High Radicalization Low/Medium Radicalization
VARIABLES DEPENDENT Membership in extremist Islamic groups, direct or support Women’s “Study” groups Activity support toward extremist Islamic group goals Public Protests Flyer Public Education Campaigns Social Media Usage
VARIABLES INDEPENDENT Social Inclusion Social Injustice
VARIABLES CONTROL Education Level Economic Class Social Class Employment Status Familial Status/Relationships Religious Participation Access to media Political affiliations Age
OTHER FACTORS Muslim Immigration rate into UK/London/Neighborhoods Regions/Nations of Origin of Muslim Immigrants into the UK Recent Political/Social Events in UK/London affecting British Muslims or their local/political/social/religious interests- positive/negative
SAMPLING 10, 000 randomly selected British Native-Born Female Citizens who follow Islam. Predominantly Anglo-Saxon or Irish origin At least 2 nd generation, non-naturalized citizen Raised within British culture Predominantly adult-converts to Islam Urban Centers London proper and major suburbs, other major seats of Muslim demographic Potentially specifically predominantly Muslim-demographic neighborhoods (immigrant, 1 st generation, non-convert) Possibly in areas with 5% or more penetration of Muslims (i. e not just very high penetration areas)
CODING AND DATA METHODOLOGY Telephone interviews through random Digit Dialing (RDD). Participating households screened for ethnicity and religion at outset. Interviews conducted in English.
CODING AND DATA QUESTION TOPICS Religiousness Mosque Attendance Country Identification British or Sharia Law School Attendance Preference Islamic State Freedom of Speech Islamaphobia/Hostility Risen Condone Political Violence Political Representation Non-Muslim-to-Muslim Contact Personally/Directly Affected by Underrepresentation/Discrimination/War
SAMPLING Three Additional European Nations for Comparison: GERMANY FRANCE NETHERLANDS
EUROPEAN MUSLIM POPULATION BY COUNTRY
EUROPEAN VIEWS OF MUSLIMS BY COUNTRY
LIMITATIONS AND WEAKNESSES Sufficient Sample Group Participation Level of Sample Group Member Disclosure/Honesty Sample Group Member Manipulation of Data Feasibility/Accessibility of Sampling Differing Cultures, Attitudes Among Sample Countries Ideology Without Action is Not Easily or Evidently Measurable
CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH TBD!
REFERENCES Brighton, Shane. January 2007. “British Muslims, Multiculturalism and UK Foreign Policy: 'Integration' and 'Cohesion' in and beyond the State”. International Affairs. Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 1 -17. Wiley, Chatham House: London. Gilligan, Andrew. March, 16, 2014. “Muslim Extremists, And A Worrying Lesson For Us All”. The Telegraph: London. Hackett, Conrad. July 19, 2016. “ 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe”. Pew Research Center: Washington, D. C. Karagiannis, Emmanuel. August 1, 2011. “Islamic Activism In Europe: The Role Of Converts”. Combatting Terrorism Center (CTC) West Point: NY.
REFERENCES Ranstorp, Magnus. April 1, 2016. “The Root Causes of Violent Extremism”. Radicalization Awareness Network (RAN) Centre of Excellence: Amsterdam. Reid, Sue. July 29, 2011. “As Islamic Extremists Declare Britain's First Sharia Law Zone, The Worrying Social And Moral Implications” The Mail on Sunday: London. Weisburd, David, Thomas E. Feucht, Idit Hakimi, Lois Felson Mock and Simon Perry. 2009. “To Protect and Serve: Policing in an Age of Terrorism”. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg: London.