- Slides: 32
The First Americans Native Americans were the first people to live in America. n They believed that the land was for everyone to use and share. n Some were hunters and some were farmers. n
Cultural Regions n n Not all Native Americans looked alike or acted alike. Each had different cultures and customs like people today. Five major regions were the Great Plains, Eastern Woodlands, Southeast, Southwest Desert and Northwest Coast. Each cultural region was made up of many tribes.
Eastern Woodlands n These Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi River in wooded areas. They relied heavily on the rich forest resources of their surroundings for survival.
Life in the Woodlands n n n They used wood from the forests to make weapons, tools, canoes, many daily items, and even their clothes. They hunted animals for food and then used the animal skins and furs for clothing. They also fished and grew crops, including corn, beans, and squash. They felt a deep connection and respect to nature and the resources around them.
The Iroquois n n The Iroquois were a league of tribes in the Eastern Woodlands. The tribes sent 50 representatives to a Great Council to make decisions for the league. The representatives were men, but older women of the tribes controlled who the representatives were.
The Iroquois n Iroquois lived in longhouses, which were long shelters made of wood that were shared by many families.
n Wampums were made of polished seashells hung on strings or woven into belts. They were highly valued by the Iroquois, and used as gifts or invitations for special events.
Eastern Woodlands Summary n n They lived in wooded areas, and used the rich resources around them. They gathered nuts, berries, and hunted game in the woods for food. Some groups fished and raised corn, beans, and squash. Iroquois was the major group in this region. They lived in longhouses. They traded Wampum beads.
Southeast n This region stretches from West Virginia south to Florida, and West to Eastern Texas. The land is covered by mountains, valleys, and swamps. Southeastern tribes often held ceremonies to honor nature. For example, the Green Corn Ceremony celebrated the first corn harvest of the season.
Southeast n Most people in the Southeast lived in clans, in villages that were led by a chief and a group of elders. Their homes changed with the seasons, and depended on the materials they got from the land. These materials included clay, grass, wood, and mud.
Southeast n n Tribes in this region worked together to farm, hunt, and build homes. Men hunted while women cooked meals. Everyone planted and harvested crops, including corn, beans, and squash. The people traded to get what they couldn’t make or find in nature. They traded goods and ideas with other tribes.
Cherokee n n The Cherokee are a Southeastern tribe that lived around the Smoky Mountains. They had a deep respect for nature, and believed that people and animals are related. Cherokee women owned the crops and houses, and passed down their homes to their daughters when they died. Medicine men healed sick people with herbs and conducted ceremonies to help keep people happy and healthy.
Southeast Summary n n Southeastern tribes worked together to hunt and grow crops. The traded for items they needed. They usually lived in groups called clans. Their homes changed seasonally so that they could stay cool in summer and warm in winter. They had a deep respect for nature.
Great Plains § These Native Americans lived in the flat, grassy central United States between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River. They depended on the buffalo for survival.
Life in the Plains § The Native Americans in this region hunted buffalo for food. They also used the buffalo to make clothing, shelter, tools, blankets, and other daily items. § They also grew crops including beans, corn, squash, and pumpkins.
§ The Native Americans in the Great Plains region lived in lodges made of earth packed over a wood frame. These were large, round huts built over a deep hole. § While on the hunt for buffalo, people lived in tepees. These shelters were made of buffalo hides stretched across a circular pole frame.
The Cheyenne § The Cheyenne tamed wild horses and used them to help them hunt buffalo more easily. § The horse also made it easier for the Cheyenne to move their camps. § Horses were so important to the Plains people that they measured wealth in horses. Some people even raided other tribes to capture more horses.
More About the Great Plains http: //inkido. indiana. edu/w 310 work/romac/plains. html
Great Plains Summary § § § § Plains Indians lived in the Central U. S. Many traveled around based on seasons (nomads) Depended on the buffalo for food and daily living items Lived in tepees while on the hunt Ate buffalo meat, corn, squash, and beans Wore buffalo skins and beads The Cheyenne used horses to hunt and travel
Southwest Desert These Native Americans lived in the dry, arid areas of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, northern Mexico, and southern Utah. Many different groups lived in this area. One of the most important and highly developed and civilized were the Pueblo.
Pueblo The Pueblo were “village” people whose way of life was based on farming. They developed irrigation to grown corn, beans, squash, and cotton. The villages looked like apartment buildings and rose several stories off the ground
Hopi The dry climate and farming way of life made rain an important need for the Hopi. These people believed that beings called kachinas could bring them rain and other kinds of help. So, they would hold ceremonies to honor the kachinas and ask for their aid. Kachina dolls were used to teach children about their beliefs. Hopi villages were on top of high mesas so that they could defend themselves against enemies. Hopi men governed their villages, but the women owned all the property.
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Southwest Desert Summary Lived in villages and desert lands Were farmers who used irrigation to grow crops including corn, beans, squash, and cotton Needed rain in their dry region Lived in adobe houses that were several stories high, or on mesas for protection
Northwest Coast Region • These Native Americans • lived along the Pacific Ocean from northern California to Alaska with the ocean on one side and thick forest on the other. They had plentiful natural resources in this region.
Life in the Northwest Coast • The forests in this region • • provided plenty of wood as well as animals to hunt. The coastal waters and rivers provided fish, whales, sea otters, and seals that were used for food, clothing, and oil. Since the resources were so plentiful, the people did not have to grow crops.
Kwakiutl • The Kwakiutl and other tribes could hold large parties that lasted several days called potlatches since they had so many resources. At these parties, the hosts showered their guests with gifts including blankets and copper shields. There was also dancing, speeches, and plenty of food.
Kwakiutl • The Kwakiutl and other • tribes used totem poles to show wealth. These were posts carved with animals or other figures representing a person’s ancestors. They were sometimes very tall and were displayed outside of their doors. Wood was also used to carve dugout canoes for fishing.
Kwakiutl • A shaman was a man or • • woman that people came to when they weren’t feeling well. The Kwakiutl believed that the shaman could cure them. The Kwakiutl created beautiful objects, often carved from wood. They lived in sturdy houses made of wood.
More About the Northwest Coast http: //inkido. indiana. edu/w 310 work/romac/nwindian. htm
Northwest Coast Summary • Lived in an area of plentiful resources, bordered • • • by an ocean on one side and forest on the other. Hunted and fished for food which included seafood, berries, and wild game. Held potlatch parties with food, dancing, and gifts. Carved items from wood, including canoes, totem poles, and art.