- Slides: 81
A People, A Culture - Native Americans are like any culture. They have a religion, language, traditions, stories, and hopes for the future.
A People, A Culture Native Americans often had ceremonies called Pow-Wows. Traditional Native American music Traditional Native American Dance
THE HORSE AND THE BUFFALO • The introduction of horses by the Spanish (1598) and later guns, meant natives were able to travel and hunt • While the horse provided speed and mobility, it was the buffalo that provided for basic needs BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING
SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD • The white settlers who pushed westward had a different idea about land ownership • Concluding that the plains were “unsettled, “ thousands advanced to claim land • Gold being discovered in Colorado only intensified the rush for land A COVERED WAGON HEADS WEST
THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES • As more and more settlers headed west, the U. S. government increasingly protected their interests • Settlers were making the land productive and therefore had more “right” to it than Native Americans • Railroad Companies also influenced government decisions RAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE
Bureau of Indian Affairs • Was set up in 1850 to manage Indian removal
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO � The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffalo � Tourist and fur traders shot buffalo for sport � Many hunters were hired to kill as many as they possibly could in order to end the Native American food source. � 1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains � 1890: less than 1000 remained
Buffalo Skulls 1870 s
History of Reservations In 1786, the United States established its first Native American reservation and approached each tribe as an independent nation.
History of Reservations Despite President Monroe’s concern for the Native Americans, his administration successfully removed them from states north of the Ohio River.
Movement A year later, Kit Carson led the Union Army in an attack on the Navajos in the desert Southwest. Union Soldiers destroyed crops, orchards, livestock, and homes in a campaign to relocate the tribes to a federal reservation.
Movement Thousands of Navajos surrendered to U. S. troops in 1864. These men, women, and children were forced to walk 300 miles to Fort Sumner, New Mexico. This legendary “Long Walk” ended at a small, disease-filled camp that served as a Navajo prison for four years.
Citizens? Despite their welcome to serve in the Union Army, Native Americans were not recognized as U. S. citizens throughout the nineteenth century. A clause in the Fourteenth Amendment “excluding Indians not taxed” prevented Native American men from receiving the right to vote when African-American men gained suffrage in 1868.
Independent Nations Tribes remained independent nations that were expected to sign agreements to establish reservations in U. S. territories. Most of these would be located on the Great Plains.
Clash on the Prairie • White settlers began to move in greater numbers onto the Great Plains after the Civil War. • The way of life between the Natives and the whites was very different. • Each wanted the land conflict followed.
Problems! Ulysses S. Grant acknowledged the problems in the treatment of Native Americans in his first inaugural address in 1869 “The proper treatment of the original occupants of this land--the Indians [is] one deserving of careful study. I will favor any course toward them which tends to their civilization and ultimate citizenship. ”
Problems! Grant’s second address showed change in U. S. thought: “Our superiority of strength and advantages of civilization should make us lenient toward the Indian. . If the effort is made in good faith, we will stand better before the civilized nations of the earth and in our own consciences for having made it. ”
Indian Wars • In 1864 a large group of Cheyenne believed they were under the federal government’s protection instead Colonel Chivington and a Methodist minister attacked the group of mostly women and children. • 250 die • This is known as the massacre at Sand Creek.
Sandy Creek Massacre • The Indians were scalped and then put on display in a theater in Denver • The crowd cheered
Red River War • In the Southern Plains Kiowa and Comanche raided settlers for over six years. • Sherman gave firm orders to kill all the men, destroy the villages, and bring in all the women and children. • This ended conflict in the southern plains.
Treaty of Fort Laramie • The Bozeman Trail in Montana ran through Sioux hunting grounds. • The government agreed to close the trail to settlers if the Sioux would sign the treaty of Fort Laramie. – Which put the Sioux on a reservation along the Missouri.
Fetterman Massacre • IN 1866 Sioux chief Red Cloud cut off the Bozeman trail to stop the spread of the gold fields. He ambushed Captain Fetterman and 80 soldiers.
Red Cloud Strikes Again • When a road connecting a fort and a mining center went through buffalo hunting grounds Red Cloud led a group of Sioux to harass the soldiers and construction workers • Was successful the road could not be used
Indian Wars • The ongoing conflicts with Native Americans even disturbed U. S. military leaders such as General George Custer. In his 1874 memoir, My Life on the Plains, Custer said that every American should be willing to avoid these “Indian wars” at any cost:
Custer • “For let [a soldier] act as he may in. . . a campaign against the Indians, if he survives the campaign he can feel assured. . . that onehalf of his fellow-citizens at home will revile him for his zeal. . . while the other half, . . . will cry "Down with him. Down with the regular army, and give us brave volunteers who can serve the Government in other ways besides eating rations and drawing pay. " (Page 20)”
There’s Gold in them thar hills-- • Miners began to search the Black Hills of South Dakota for gold. • This was sacred ground to the Sioux and they asked the government for help to keep the settlers off the land. • Colonel George Custer reported that the Black Hills had gold “ from the grass roots down” and a gold rush was on.
Little Bighorn • Custer didn’t have to think about this for too long. • In 1876, he and his 209 men died in an attack on Sioux and Cheyenne warriors during the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Black Hills, Montana.
Crazy Horse Sitting Bull George Armstrong Custer
Battle of the Little Bighorn – Key players (US Cavalry) – Terry – Gibbon – Crook » Custer and the 7 th Calvary • Benteen • Reno – Key Players (Lakota and Cheyenne) • Crazy Horse • Sitting Bull
Comanche • Only living survivor of Custer’s Last Stand found on the Battlefield. • Found after two days with numerous wounds. Three serious through his neck, front shoulder, and hindquarter along with numerous flesh wounds. • Owner was Miles Keogh • Never ridden again. Became a ceremonial horse to lead the regiment with a saddle on and backwards boots in the stirrups.
Outcome Custer’s death ignited the military. Over the next few months they tracked down Sioux and Cheyenne warriors and forced them onto reservations.
Outcome The killing of buffalo by settlers reduced the food available to independent Native Americans. For many Native Americans, the federal government’s reservation system became the only means for survival.
Chief Joseph Famous Speaker
Chief Joseph Surrender of Chief Joseph
Wounded Knee The last official military action against Native Americans took place on December 29, 1890. Government officials banned a growing religion known as the Ghost Dance on a South Dakota reservation that month.
Wounded Knee As part of the crackdown against the Ghost Dance, the army arrested Chief Big Foot and his Lakota tribesmen and confined them to a camp near Wounded Knee Creek. The day after the arrest, the military attempted to recover the prisoner’s weapons. A gun was accidentally discharged and soldiers opened fire. When the shooting stopped, more than 300 Lakota Indians were dead.
Wounded Knee The dead and wounded were left for three days in a blizzard.
"Then still frozen stiff, the bodies were dumped unceremoniously into the hole. . . "
Attacks! It is important to note that the attacks were not one sided. Massacres happened on both sides. In Minnesota in August of 1862, the Lower Sioux uprised against settlers. The numbers of dead ranged somewhere between 450 -800.
Indian Schools First efforts to accomplish the goal of assimilation was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, "kill the Indian and save the man. "
Indian Schools • At Carlisle, young Indian boys and girls were subjected to a complete transformation. Photographs taken at the school illustrate how they looked "before" and "after". • The dramatic contrast between traditional clothing and hairstyles and Victorian styles of dress helped convince the public that through boarding school education Indians could become completely "civilized".
Indian Schools • The federal government established two other types of schools: the reservation boarding school and day schools. • Reservation boarding schools had the advantage of being closer to Indian communities and as a result had lower transportation costs. • Contact between students and their families was restricted as students remained at the school for eight to nine months of the year. • Relatives could visit briefly at prescribed times. School administrators worked constantly to keep the students at school and eradicate all traces of their tribal cultures.
Indian Schools Day schools, which were the most economical, usually provided only a minimal education. They worked with the boarding schools by transferring students for more advanced studies.
Fort Spokane In eastern Washington, a U. S. military fort near Spokane was transformed into a boarding school for Indians of the Spokane and Colville reservations. Fort Spokane Boarding School opened in 1900 with an enrollment of 83 pupils and grew to 200 by 1902. It operated only until 1914 after which time the children attended day schools closer to their homes. Similarly, the military facility at Fort Simcoe became a school for the Yakama and their neighbors.
School Life All federal boarding schools, whether on or off reservation, shared certain characteristics. Common features included: 1. A military style regimen 2. English language only 3. Emphasis on farming 4. A schedule that equally split academic and vocational training.
School Life “We went from the tallest to the littlest, all the way down in companies. We had A, B, C, D companies. E Company was the Lazy Company, those that just couldn't get up and make it. They had all kinds of demerits for those people. They thought they'd shame them a little bit if they made an extra company and called it the Lazy Company. ” (Helma Ward, Makah, Tulalip Indian School, from interview with Carolyn Marr)
School Life Students were prohibited from speaking their native languages and those caught "speaking Indian" were severely punished. Later, many former students regretted that they lost the ability to speak their native language fluently because of the years they spent in boarding school.
School LIfe Another important part of the government policy for "civilizing" the Indians was to teach farming techniques. Although few reservations in the Pacific Northwest had either fertile land or a climate conducive to agriculture, nonetheless it was felt that farming was the proper occupation for American citizens. Boys learned how to milk cows, grow vegetables, repair tools, and even had lessons on the various types of plows.
School Life Mandatory education for Indian children became law in 1893. If parents refused to send their children to school the authorities could withhold money, rations, or send them to jail. Considerable pressure was exerted on Indian families to send their children to boarding schools beginning when the child was six years old. Once their children were enrolled in a distant school, parents lost control over decisions that affected them.
School Life Fear and loneliness caused by this early separation from family is a common experience shared by all former students.
School Life “Two of our girls ran away. . . but they got caught. They tied their legs up, tied their hands behind their backs, put them in the middle of the hallway so that if they fell, fell asleep or something, the matron would hear them and she'd get out there and whip them and make them stand up again. ” (Helma Ward, Makah, interview with Carolyn Marr)
School Life • Not all experiences at the boarding schools were negative for all students. • In hindsight, former students acknowledge benefits they gained from their education, and there were happy moments for some. • Sports, games and friendships are examples of experiences remembered in a positive light.
School Life • By 1923, the majority of Indian children nationwide attended public schools. A report on Indian education issued in 1928 revealed glaring deficiencies in the boarding schools, including poor diet, overcrowding, below-standard medical service, excessive labor by the students and substandard teaching. • The 1930 s witnessed many changes in federal Indian policy, among which was a shift in educational philosophy. Classroom lessons could now reflect the diversity of Indian cultures. States assumed more control over Indian education as more children enrolled in public schools. Most of the boarding schools were closed by this time
School Life The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 introduced the teaching of Indian history and culture in BIA schools
• Sample Constitution
Dawes Act • The Dawes Act of 1887 dissolved many Indian reservations. • The federal government opened Oklahoma’s unoccupied lands to white settlers in 1889. • Four years later, the government purchased more than 6 million acres from tribes to pave the way for the Oklahoma land rush.
The Road to Citizenship • By 1900, the Native American population in the United States had dwindled to approximately 250, 000. • The perceived diminishing of a “Native American threat” to white prosperity sometimes made Native Americans little more than a novelty act. – Thomas Edison’s turn-of-the-century films such as Buffalo Dance, Sioux Ghost Dance, and the Sham Battle at the Pan -American Exposition documented traditional performances created for the interest and amusement of people attending an ethnic village in a World’s Fair.
Citizenship On June 2, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge signed a bill granting Native Americans full citizenship.
Coolidge posed with four Osage Indians in front of the White House to commemorate the event.
Citizens In the 1950 s the Bureau of Indian Affairs terminated federal services and placed the responsibility for Native Americans on state governments. Between 1952 and 1956, the bureau also sold 1. 6 million acres of Native American land to developers.
Native Americans Today Many tribes face tremendous problems today. - poverty - high suicide rates - alcohol and drug abuse problems
Native Americans Today • Many are trying to get back their culture. – Legends – Dance
The End (the end)