- Slides: 39
Nationalism: Then, Now, & Future?
Unification - THEN Germany
Germany • 1815 Germany had 39 states called the German Confederation (controlled by Austria) • Prussia leads unification – German population – Nationalistic movement – Stronger Army – King (Kaiser) Wilhelm I appoints Bismarck to orchestrate unification
Germany • Bismarck practiced “realpolitik” - Any action is acceptable if it serves the state’s best interest • Bismarck hoped to use military successes to unite Germany • 3 Wars for Unification: – Danish War – Austro-Prussian – Franco-Prussian War
Germany • Danish War: • Prussia allies with Austria to go to war against Denmark for border provinces, Schleswig & Holstein • After victory, Prussia governed Schleswig, while Austria controlled Holstein • Sets up a conflict…
Germany • Austro-Prussian War (7 Weeks War): • Bismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein • Provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia • Prussia easily defeats Austria (help from Italy) and loses land to them • Prussia took control of northern Germany
Germany • Franco-Prussian War: • Southern Germany was Catholic and resisted unification at first • Bismarck thought if they had a threat (like France) they would join • Bismarck created “incident” making it look like French ambassador insulted Prussian king – Prussia declares war on France!
Germany • Franco-Prussian War: • Prussia wins! Southern Germany catches nationalistic fever and accepted Prussian leadership!
Unification - THEN Italy
Sardinia: Largest & most powerful Italian State Existence of multiple Italian states & the presence of Austria hindered Italian unification
Leaders of Unification • Mazzini “The Soul” • Garibaldi “The Sword” • Cavour “The Brain”
Mazzini: The Soul • Risorgimento: • Movement of IT Nationalism • Inspiration for unification; lays the groundwork
Garibaldi: The Sword • Bold & visionary soldier • Led a small army of Italian nationalists known as Red Shirts
Cavour: The Brain • Prime minister of Sardinia under King Victor Emmanuel III (the only native Italian king) • Built Sardinia’s economy & planned to unify IT under his king
Step One: • Allied with French to drive Austria out of northern Italian provinces • Got all of N. Italy except Venetia
Step 2: Join with Sardinia • Meanwhile, other Italian states revolted against their rulers • Voted to join with Sardinia • Northern Italy was now united under Sardinia
Step 3: Liberation of Sicilies • Garibaldi (paid by Cavour) liberated the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) from foreign rule; marched north through Italy with his 1000 Red Shirts
Step 4: Unite N. & S. Italy • Cavour convinced Garibaldi to give Sicilies to a United Italy under King Victor Emanuel II • United northern & southern Italy
Victor Emmanuel II Garibaldi
What’s left? ? Venetia & Papal State of Rome
Step 5: Add Venetia • Venetia was added to Italy in 1866 when Prussia defeated Austria
Step 6: Add Rome • Rome was added in 1870 when France withdrew troops from Rome due to the Franco-Prussian War
Once Rome was added to Italy, it was made the capital of the Nation-State
But the Pope Objects… • The Pope refused to recognize the new Italian government • Kept Vatican City separate
Unification - NOW • May 22, 1990 - North and South Yemen merged to form a unified Yemen • October 3, 1990 - East Germany and West Germany merged to form a unified Germany (again!) after the fall of the Iron Curtain
Unification – • Will South. FUTURE? Korea ever reunite with North Korea?
Unification – FUTURE? • Will Northern Ireland ever reunite with the Republic of Ireland?
Unification – FUTURE? • Will Puerto Rico unite with the United States of America as the 51 st state…or separate as an independent country?
Separation - THEN Austrian Empire
Separation - THEN • Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Serbs, etc. • Lost Northern Land to Prussia (smaller/weaker) • Pressure from Hungarians causes split, becomes Austria-Hungary • After WWI, breaks into several nation-states
Separation - THEN Russian Empire
Separation - THEN • Ruled by Romanov Dynasty – Czars! • Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, etc. • Each had own culture • Russification – forced Russian culture on all ethnic groups BUT nationalism grows • WWI & Communist Revolution lead to break up of Empire in 1917
Separation - THEN Ottoman Empire
Separation - THEN • Ruled by Turks • Controlled Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians and Armenians • Greeks win independence in 1821 • Under pressure from British/French, granted equal citizenship to all people under their rule • BUT this angered conservative Turks • Armenian Nationalist Movement grows, Turks respond by massacring & deporting thousands from 1894 -1896 & 1915
Separation - NOW • Fifteen new countries became independent with the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 • Yugoslavia dissolved in the early 1990 s into five independent countries • January 1, 1993 - The Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent nations when Czechoslovakia dissolved • May 25, 1993 - Eritrea was a part of Ethiopia but seceded and gained independence
Separation - NOW • June 3, 2006 - Montenegro was part of Serbia and Montenegro (also known as Yugoslavia) but gained independence after a referendum • June 5, 2006 - Serbia became its own entity after Montenegro split • February 17, 2008 - Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia • July 9, 2011 - South Sudan peacefully seceded from Sudan
Separation – FUTURE? • Will Quebec separate from Canada?
Separation – FUTURE? • Will Chechnya separate from Russia?
Separation – FUTURE? • Will Scotland separate from the UK?