- Slides: 10
NATIONALISM • Define nationalism
NATIONALISM • Define nationalism – * pride in one’s country * patriotism or devotion to one’s country * loyalty and duty to a group or country • Nationalism brings a people together, but can also promote a sense of racial superiority toward other ethnicities.
Our Three Cases – Chapter 23 • For each of the following leaders, tell which country they are associated with and how NATIONALISM played a role in their legacies: 1 - Otto von Bismarck 2 - Count Camillo Cavour 3 - Guiseppi Garibaldi 4 - Czar Nicholas II
Our Three Cases • Bismarck – used nationalism to unify Germany for his own gains • Cavour & Garibaldi – helped unify Italy into a republic where Italians ruled themselves • Nicholas II – used forced nationalism as a dictator in ruling Russia
Unification of Germany 1865 -1871
NATIONALISM in GERMANY • • Otto von Bismarck Was not considered a “nationalist, ” but used nationalism to his advantage. United German States Used WARFARE as a means to unify Germany. Allied with Austria and then invented an excuse to attack Austria (Austro-Prussian War). Deceived Napoleon III with a false inflammatory telegram and defeated France (Franco-Prussian War). Second Reich (Empire) was born.
Unification of Italy 1858 -1870
NATIONALISM in N. ITALY Count Camillo Cavour • Improved agriculture. • Built railroads. • Encouraged unity by supporting free trade. • Wanted to end Austrian rule in Northern Italy. • Signed a secret deal with Napoleon for his support in case of war with Austria – a war he began in 1859. • Was successful in driving out Austrian forces & unifying Northern Italy.
NATIONALISM in S. ITALY Giuseppe Garibaldi • • Longtime nationalist. Wanted to create an Italian republic. Recruited a force of 1, 000 redshirted volunteers and accepted aid in the form of weapons from Cavour. He quickly won control of Sicily, crossed the mainland, and marched north to Naples. Afraid that Garibaldi might set up his own republic, Cavour had troops sent to control his moves. These troops quickly sided with Garibaldi. In a patriotic move, Garibaldi turned over his unified regions to Victor Emmanuel II – the new king
NATIONALISM in RUSSIA Czar Nicholas II • • • Ruled Russia as a dictator. Suppressed the Russian people and cracked down on all dissent. Anyone expressing liberal ideas was imprisoned or killed. Led Russia when they entered into World War I. Nationalism involved respect for Russian traditions and suppression of non-Russian groups within the empire (Russification). Was incompetent & blind to the demands of the Russian peasants – “PEACE, LAND, and BREAD!”