Naming and Directories Mark Stanovich Operating Systems COP

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Naming and Directories Mark Stanovich Operating Systems COP 4610

Naming and Directories Mark Stanovich Operating Systems COP 4610

Recall from the last time… A file header associates the file with its data

Recall from the last time… A file header associates the file with its data blocks

File Header Storage Under UNIX, a file header is stored in a data structure

File Header Storage Under UNIX, a file header is stored in a data structure called i-node For early UNIX systems I-nodes are stored in a special array Fixed number of array entries Maximum number of files fixed Not stored near data blocks on disk Reading a small file involves One disk seek to get the i-node Other disk seek(s) to get file blocks

Reasons for Separate Allocations Reliability Data corruptions are unlikely to affect i-nodes Reduced fragmentation

Reasons for Separate Allocations Reliability Data corruptions are unlikely to affect i-nodes Reduced fragmentation File headers are smaller than a whole block By packing them in an array, multiple headers can be fetched from disk File headers are accessed more often e. g. , ls Grouping file headers improves disk efficiency

For BSD 4. 2… Portions of file header array stored on each cylinder For

For BSD 4. 2… Portions of file header array stored on each cylinder For small directories All file headers and data stored in the same cylinder Reduce seek time

Naming Remember that odd moment when your computer asks you for name the first

Naming Remember that odd moment when your computer asks you for name the first file? Naming: allows users to issue file names instead of i-node numbers - Users tend to come up with poor names e. g. , test - Many file are difficult to name…

How do you name these photos?

How do you name these photos?

Directories A table of file names and their i-node numbers Under many file systems

Directories A table of file names and their i-node numbers Under many file systems Directories are implemented as normal files Containing file names and i_node numbers Only the OS is permitted to modify directories

Name Space Flat name space Hierarchical naming Relational name space Contextual naming Content-based naming

Name Space Flat name space Hierarchical naming Relational name space Contextual naming Content-based naming

Flat Name Space All files are stored in a single directory + Easy to

Flat Name Space All files are stored in a single directory + Easy to implement - Not scalable for large directories Name collisions: multiple files with the same names

Hierarchical Naming Uses multiple levels of directories Most popular name space organization + Conceptual

Hierarchical Naming Uses multiple levels of directories Most popular name space organization + Conceptual model maps well into the human model of organizing things A file cabinet contains many files + Scalable The probability of name collisions decreases + Spatial locality Store all files under a directory within a cylinder to avoid disk seeks

More on Hierarchical Naming Absolute path name: consisting the path from the root directory

More on Hierarchical Naming Absolute path name: consisting the path from the root directory ‘/’ to the file e. g. , /pets/cat. jpg root directory sub directory file name

Drawbacks of Hierarchical Naming - Not all files can fit into the hierarchical model

Drawbacks of Hierarchical Naming - Not all files can fit into the hierarchical model pets pests ? ? - Accessing a file may involve many levels of directory lookups, or a path resolution before getting to the file content

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os 1. Read in the file header for the root directory ‘/’ Stored at a fixed location on disk /

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os 2. Read the first data block for the root directory Lookup the directory entry for pets / pets

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os 3. Read the file header for pets / pets

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os 4. Read the first data block for the pets directory Lookup the directory entry for cat. jpg / pets cat

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os 5. Read the file header for cat. jpg / pets cat

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The

An Example of Path Resolution To access the data content of /pets/cat. jpg The system needs to perform the following disk I/Os 6. Read the data block for cat. jpg / pets cat

Some Performance Optimizations… Top-level directories are usually cached A user inside a directory (e.

Some Performance Optimizations… Top-level directories are usually cached A user inside a directory (e. g. , /pets) Can issue relative path names (e. g. , cat. jpg) to refer files within the current directory

Relational Name Space Hierarchical naming model is largely a tree One step beyond is

Relational Name Space Hierarchical naming model is largely a tree One step beyond is the relational naming model, which allows the construction of general graphs A file can belong to multiple folders According to its attributes Files can be accessed in a manner similar to relational databases e. g. , keywords: cats and binder

Pros and Cons of Relational Name Space + More flexible than hierarchical naming -

Pros and Cons of Relational Name Space + More flexible than hierarchical naming - May require a long list of attributes to name a single piece of data e. g. , this lecture Keywords: operating systems, file systems, naming, Power. Point XP - Who will create those attributes?

Contextual Naming Takes advantage of the observation that certain attributes can be added automatically

Contextual Naming Takes advantage of the observation that certain attributes can be added automatically e. g. , when you try to open a file by Word, a system will search only the file types supported by Word (. doc, . txt, . html) + Avoids a long list of attributes - A user may not remember the file name

Content-Based Naming Searches a file by its content instead of names File contents are

Content-Based Naming Searches a file by its content instead of names File contents are extracted automatically e. g. , I want a photo of a cat taken five years ago The system returns all files satisfying the criteria

Content-Based Naming - Requires advanced information processing techniques e. g. , image recognition Many

Content-Based Naming - Requires advanced information processing techniques e. g. , image recognition Many existing systems use manual indexing Automated content-based naming is still an active area of research

Example: The “Internet File System” Can be viewed as a worldwide file system What

Example: The “Internet File System” Can be viewed as a worldwide file system What is the naming scheme for the Internet file system?

The “Internet File System” Contains shades of various naming schemes Flat name space: Each

The “Internet File System” Contains shades of various naming schemes Flat name space: Each URL provides a unique name Hierarchical name space: Within individual websites Relational name space Can search the Internet via search engines Contextual name space: Page ranked according to relevance Content-based name space: You can find your information without knowing the exact file names

Example: Plan 9 Modern UNIX has a deep-rooted influence from the Plan 9 OS

Example: Plan 9 Modern UNIX has a deep-rooted influence from the Plan 9 OS Developed by Bell lab Major design philosophy: everything is a file A single hierarchical name space for Processes (e. g. , /proc) Files IPC (e. g. , pipe) Devices (e. g. , /dev/fd 0) Use open/close/read/write for everything e. g. , /dev/mem