NAIROBI CONVENTION Nairobi Convention o The Convention for

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NAIROBI CONVENTION Nairobi Convention o The Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of

NAIROBI CONVENTION Nairobi Convention o The Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean Doris Mutta Regional Seas (Nairobi Conventions) Division of Environmental Policy Implementation (DEPI) UNEP, UN Gigiri Complex P. O. Box 30552 Nairobi, Kenya doris. [email protected] org http: //www. unep. org/Nairobi. Convention/ http: //www. unep. org/Abidjan. Convention/

The Nairobi Convention Area Coastal states (10) Somalia to South Africa • 5 Mainland

The Nairobi Convention Area Coastal states (10) Somalia to South Africa • 5 Mainland coastal states • 5 Island Developing States • Coastline > 5, 000 km: mangroves, sea grass beds, coral reefs, coastal forests • Combined Population 178 million- increasing demand on goods and services

Nairobi Convention The Nairobi Convention (1985/1996/Amended 2010) • Governments’ political commitment to protection, management

Nairobi Convention The Nairobi Convention (1985/1996/Amended 2010) • Governments’ political commitment to protection, management and development of the WIO region • Umbrella regional agreement elaborated by 3 specific technical protocols Legal framework in the WIO region • Platform for collaboration between countries and agencies (transboundary issues) • AMCEN declaration of 2010 • Country driven process/priorities • Execution of Programme of Work through regional programmes: govts, national, regional, international institutions

Marine and Coastal ecosystems support ecological systems, livelihoods and national economic development Fisheries, shipping,

Marine and Coastal ecosystems support ecological systems, livelihoods and national economic development Fisheries, shipping, tourism, etc Over $25 b per year and over 60 million coastal population Trans. Boundary Diagnostic Analysis UNEP/GEF WIO-La. B Project 4

Physical alteration and destruction of habitats Habitat conversion: Overexploitation: Marine pollution: crude oil vessels

Physical alteration and destruction of habitats Habitat conversion: Overexploitation: Marine pollution: crude oil vessels accidental oil spills, Chemical pollution: Ports and harbours (hot spots) Dredging activities Mangroves dieback, sea grass- decline productivity Water quality: declining fish stocks, tourism, etc UNEP/GEF 5 invasive WIO-La. B species Project

Pollution from land-based sources Microbiological contaminants, Marine litter Industrial waste discharge Ports waste UNEP/GEF

Pollution from land-based sources Microbiological contaminants, Marine litter Industrial waste discharge Ports waste UNEP/GEF WIO-La. B Project 6

Alteration in river flow and sediment loads River -Coast Interactions UNEP/GEF WIO-La. B Project

Alteration in river flow and sediment loads River -Coast Interactions UNEP/GEF WIO-La. B Project 7

Emerging issues: Climate Change UNEP/GEF WIO-La. B Project 8

Emerging issues: Climate Change UNEP/GEF WIO-La. B Project 8

THE CONVENTION THE ROLE OF SHIPPING &PORTS Nairobi Convention • Articles 5 Pollution from

THE CONVENTION THE ROLE OF SHIPPING &PORTS Nairobi Convention • Articles 5 Pollution from ships • Article 6: Pollution caused by dumping waste from ships • Article 7 Pollution from land based sources • Article 8: Pollution from sea-bed activities

Nairobi Convention The Convention’s Protocols Legal Frameworks Protocol concerning protected areas and wild fauna

Nairobi Convention The Convention’s Protocols Legal Frameworks Protocol concerning protected areas and wild fauna and flora in Eastern African region Protocol concerning cooperation in combating marine pollution in cases of emergency in the Eastern African Region (marine pollution) – oil spills and other harmful substances Protocol concerning land based sources and activities of pollution negotiated and adopted 1 April 2010 Strategic Action Programme____ endorsed 1 April 2010

Nairobi Convention Emergency Protocol • Protocol concerning cooperation in combating marine pollution in cases

Nairobi Convention Emergency Protocol • Protocol concerning cooperation in combating marine pollution in cases of emergency – Take all necessary measures to prevent, remedy and protect marine and coastal environment – Establish and maintain means of responding to marine pollution incidents and reduce risk – Enact relevant legislation, prepare contingency plans

Nairobi Convention Partnership with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) • Technical assistance to individual countries

Nairobi Convention Partnership with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) • Technical assistance to individual countries for strengthening marine pollution responses capabilities – Prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution • Assessment of problems relating to contingency plans development, sensitivity maps • Assessment of regional capability to deal with marine pollution • Upgrade countries pollution preparedness and response capabilities

Strategic Action Programme for the Protection of the Western Indian Ocean Coastal and Marine

Strategic Action Programme for the Protection of the Western Indian Ocean Coastal and Marine Environment from Land-based Sources and Activities “People of the region prospering from a healthy Western Indian Ocean” Promote sustainable development in the WIO Region by strengthening the management of coastal and marine resources, on the basis of an ecosystem-based management approach 13

Nairobi Convention Strategic Components/Environmental Quality Objectives Frame of reference for regional harmonisation and coordination

Nairobi Convention Strategic Components/Environmental Quality Objectives Frame of reference for regional harmonisation and coordination of transboundary efforts By 2035 in the WIO region: A. B. C. Critical coastal habitats will be protected, restored and managed for sustainable use; Water quality will meet international standards; and River flows will be wisely and sustainably managed By 2015, there will be: D. Effective collaboration at regional level in addressing transboundary challenges (Governance) 14

Nairobi Convention National roll-out A Strategic Action Programme on Land-based Sources and Activities Management

Nairobi Convention National roll-out A Strategic Action Programme on Land-based Sources and Activities Management A new Protocol on Landbased Sources and Activities for the Nairobi Convention Mainstreaming Land-based Sources and Activities Management at the National Level 1. 2. 3. 4. Mainstreaming into national development plans Development of partnerships for SAP implementation Development of concrete proposals for donor/partner support 15 Monitoring and evaluation of SAP implementation

The Role of Ports and Maritime Transport • Ports play an important role in

The Role of Ports and Maritime Transport • Ports play an important role in sustaining national economies international/regional trade • Role to play in restoring water quality and therefore sustaining marine biodiversity, ecological services- livelihoods(fish stocks, human health, tourism) • • • Minimise impact of port development Environmental performance Adequate contingency plans Sensitivity mapping Reception facilities for oil

Nairobi Convention Environmental Management of areas and activities within ports (water, land, air), •

Nairobi Convention Environmental Management of areas and activities within ports (water, land, air), • Through controlled chemical pollution (suspended solids); solid waste management: marine litter • Port reception facilities (transport, handling and storage); • Ballast water management; • Port expansion developments (habitat alteration and destruction) • Key Principles for Port and Harbour Development: good mgt practices in planning, design and management (GPA/UNEP) – Environmentally accountable, E performance, EIA, networks, partnerships

Nairobi Convention Strategic Action Programme for the Protection of the Western Indian Ocean Coastal

Nairobi Convention Strategic Action Programme for the Protection of the Western Indian Ocean Coastal and Marine Environment from Land-based Sources and Activities Partnership for a healthy Western Indian Ocean 18

Nairobi Convention THANK YOU Please visit www. unep. org/Nairobi. Convention

Nairobi Convention THANK YOU Please visit www. unep. org/Nairobi. Convention