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N A V S E AN W A VA SR EF AA R WE

N A V S E AN W A VA SR EF AA R WE A CR EF NA TR EE R CS E N T E R S CAD/PAD Digital Twin Program Overview Presented to: PARARI: Australian Explosive Ordnance Safety Symposium 5 – 7 November 2019 Capt. Scott H. Kraft, USN Commanding Officer Mr. Ashley G. Johnson, SES Technical Director Distribution Statement Distribution A (19 -088): Statement Approved A (19 -088): for Public Approved Release. for Public Distribution Release. Unlimited Distribution Unlimited N A V S E AN W A VA SR EF AA R WE A CR EF NA TR EE R CS E N T E R S 1 1

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Agenda Status update of Digital Twin projects • Digital Twin Definition • Digital Twin Architecture • Temperature Predictive Model • Temperature Estimation – PDRM • Temperature Estimation – WB 15 • Temperature Data Logger • Chemical Kinetic Model • PDRM Effective Stabilizer • Composite Propellant Model • V 22 Thin Layer Explosives (TLX) Model • Digital Twin Working Group • Future activities Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 2

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Digital Twin Definition • A digital twin is the virtual model of a physical thing o Living or non-living; o Can be a process, product or service • The creation of a digital twin creates a bridge between the physical world (where the basis of the digital twin exists) and the virtual world (where analysis, monitoring, maintenance, etc. of the basis of the digital twin occurs). • Can be used for: o Condition based service life o Support service life extensions o Establish initial service life o CAD/PAD health monitoring o Failure investigation support Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 3 3

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Digital Twin Architecture Double Base Propellant Model Temperature Profile Modules Stabilizer Depletion Modules Remaining Useful Life Modules Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 4 4

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Temperature Predictive Model • Objectives: To develop a cockpit temperature profile model based on available deck plate data o Developed cockpit temperature prediction model to include cockpit temperature gradient o Collecting actual aircraft temperature at China Lake, California – Initial data collected analyzed o Validate model against data collected from data logger installed in static aircraft o Refine model based on the collected data Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 5

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Temperature Estimation-PDRM Cockpit Temperature o. F • Comparison of regression model estimation to actual value: • • Data Points 55 through 197 are measurements taken during the 2007 study Points 1 through 54 recorded during summer/fall 2018 Blue: Actual Green: Estimation Cockpit open while sensors installed Data Collection Points Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 6 6

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Temperature Estimation-WB 15 • Comparison of regression model estimation to actual value: Cockpit Temperature o. F • • Data Points 55 through 197 are measurements taken during the 2007 study Points 1 through 54 recorded during summer/fall 2018 Gray: Actual Brown: Estimation Cockpit open while sensors installed Data Collection Points Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 7 7

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Temperature data logger • Install data loggers in static aircraft o Single and dual seater o Cover range of climates • Collect temperature at: o PDRM o Catapult primary cartridge (WB 15) o Under Seat Rocket Motor (USRM) o High, middle and low ambient temperature in cockpit o Outside air temperature Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 8 8

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Temperature data logger • Collect cockpit temperature and ambient temperature data for one year • Temperature data will be collected every 20 minutes • Download temperature data every 3 months XR 5 -SE data logger Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 9 9

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Chemical Kinetic Model • Objective: Develop stabilizer concentration models based on actual chemical reactions o Reaction kinetics are a function of temperature o Artic slopes (SBIR contractor) developed and validated stabilizer depletion model for N-methyl-p-nitroaniline (MNA) stabilizer – Verified model against actual accelerated aging test data o Developing a chemical kinetic model for 2 -nitrodiphenylamine (2 NDPA) stabilizer – Initial digital twin model utilized Arrhenius equation to estimate stabilizer concentration levels Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 10

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S PDRM Effective Stabilizer Levels by Location Assumes aircraft is consistently stationed at location 1. 8 % of total propellant weight is Initial Amount of Effective Stabilizer Whidbey Island Oceana Fallon. 2 % of total propellant weight is the Replacement Threshold Month 1 is July China Lake El Centro Year 1 Year 2 Lemoore Year 3 Key West Year 4 Year 5 Two years of service life does not provide optimal utilization Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 11 11

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S PDRM Effective Stabilizer Level – BUNO xxxxxx • xxxxxx is the BUNO whose 1. 8 % of total propellant weight is Initial Amount of Effective Stabilizer PDRM exploded in July 2007 • Deck plate history shows the PDRM spent its entire life at China Lake PDRM Incident Date – July 2007 Model Prediction: 0. 40 Range: 0. 09 to 0. 68 . 2 % of total propellant weight is the Replacement Threshold Month 1 is September 2004 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 12 12

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S PDRM Effective Stabilizer Level – BUNO yyyyyy Deck plate History: Actual Removal Date – August 2015 1. 8 % of total propellant weight is Initial Amount of Effective Stabilizer Mostly Oceana & Fallon 9 Months deployed at Sea Estimated remaining life if device not removed (Hypothetical) Model Prediction: 1. 616 Actual: 1. 6 Range: 1. 600 to 1. 710 Oceana 5 th Fleet AOR Fallon Oceana Month 1 is July 2013 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Year 5 13 13

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Composite Propellant Model • Objective: Develop a digital twin model to predict health of composite propellant grains o Technical approach o Develop a response function of HTPB propellant to accumulated high temperature exposure and temperature cycling – Integrate existing F-18 Canopy Jettison Rocket Motor (CJRM) structural model with HTPB propellant aging model – Propellant will be aged at 3 separate temperatures and withdrawn for tensile and stress relaxation testing at regular intervals over the course of 2 -3 years – Test results will determine the sensitivity of the HTPB propellant mechanical properties to changes in temperature Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 14

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S V 22 TLX Model • Objectives: Develop a digital twin model for TLX detonation transfer lines o A NISE 219 project initiated to create a digital twin for TLX installed onboard V-22 aircraft – Based on temperature cycling, humidity and vibration effects – Identified test assets and technical approach o Collaborating with the national labs to leverage the tremendous HMX and HNS aging data that they collected over the years o Digital twin model will be based on an existing finite element model o Working to obtain environmental exposure sensor data (temp. , humidity, and vibration) to be used for model validation o The validated model will support service life extension decisions and to establish initial service life of new applications Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 15

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Digital Twin Working Group • Actively participating in the Naval Research and Development Establishment (NR&DE) digital twin working group o Developing digital twin for submarines, surface ships and aircraft o Focus on condition base maintenance and structural fatigue o Developing digital strategy for Department of Navy • Projected outcome are collaborative digital twin projects with other NR&DEs • Monitoring digital twin project initiated by the working group for lithium batteries Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 16

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N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S Future Activities • Digital twin project funding secured for the next five years • Complete double base propellant digital twin validation • Complete TLX digital twin • Initiate development of the composite propellant model • Initiate development of thermal battery digital twin • Continue involvement with the digital twin working group Distribution Statement A (19 -088): Approved for Public Release. Distribution Unlimited N A V S E A W A R F A R E C E N T E R S 17