Myers chapter 1 (B): Non-Experimental Research Designs A. P. Psychology
Do-Now (In Journal) n Think of a psychological phenomenon that you would be interested to research (a behavior, habit, disorder, etc. ) n Briefly describe how you could hypothetically carry out your research
Pre-Research Decisions n Population: n n n All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn E. g. The entire CHS student body (2, 000 students) Sample: n n n Small group of participants, out of a total population, that a researcher studies Representative vs. Non-representative E. g. 200 CHS students
Pre-Research Decisions n What might a representative sample of CHS students look like? n How could we effectively get a representative sample of CHS students?
Pre-Research Decisions n Random Sample: n A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Non-Experimental Research Designs n Naturalistic Observation: n n Case Study: n n Observation of subject(s) in a natural setting without manipulating or controlling the situation (e. g. watching teenagers in a mall) Intensive investigation of participant(s) (e. g. long-term interviews, living with participants, journals, video blogs) Survey: n Information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions (e. g. questionnaire on selfreported attitudes or behaviors)
Non-Experimental Research Designs n Longitudinal Study: n n Studying a group of participants over a number of years (e. g. following a group of high school freshmen throughout their high school career) Cross-Sectional Study: n Studying groups of participants of different ages and comparing them to draw conclusions about age (e. g. studying a group of freshmen and seniors)
Non-Experimental Research Designs n Think of an example in which each of the following research designs would be most effective: Naturalistic Observation n Case Study n Survey n Longitudinal Study n Cross-Sectional Study n
Correlation n Correlation: A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together (and how well one factor predicts the other) n Does not demonstrate causation n Can be positive or negative n Can be illusory (appears to be relationship where none exists) n Measured with scatterplots n Measured by a correlation coefficient “r” (-1 to +1) n
Correlation What naturallyexisting correlations can you think of?
Correlation n Positive Correlation: n Direct relationship n Both factors increase together; Both factors decrease together n E. g. Amount of sleep and GPA n Right: Perfect Positive Correlation (r=+1. 00)
Height and Temperament in Men r=+0. 63
Correlation n Negative Correlation: n Inverse relationship n One factor increases, while the other decreases n E. g. Physical exercise and fat content n Right: Perfect Negative Correlation (r=-1. 00)
Correlation n What do you think a scatterplot would look like for two factors that are not correlated? n What would its correlation coefficient be? n r=0. 00
Correlation ≠ Causation
Review n What is the difference between a population and a sample? n How could one effectively create a representative sample? n What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation? n What are some implications of a correlation?
Homework n Research Study Response #40: “Obey At Any Cost? ” (Pgs. 308 -317)