- Slides: 17
Music of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages (Medieval Period)
Middle Ages (Medieval Period) Relatively small feudalistic territories formed in the absence of Roman imperial protection. Christianity continued to spread over Europe under Roman Catholic authority. Widespread illiteracy in absence of printed material. Books were handmade and very expensive.
Feudalism Relatively small areas of land controlled by local "warlords", "land barons", etc. , who provided protection for residents on his lands in exchange for tribute.
Gregorian Chant (Plainchant, Plainsong) Single unaccompanied melody over sacred text in Latin. Comprised total musical content of Catholic worship in early medieval period. Named for Pope Gregory I (reigned 590 -604) who codified them during the sixth-century, establishing uniform usage throughout the Western Church.
Hymn to St. John (Ut Queant Laxis) • Ut queant laxis • Resonare fibris • Mira gestorum • Famulituorum • Solve poluti • Labii reatum • Sancte Johannes
Gregorian Chant (Plainchant, Plainsong) Listening: Hymn to St. John (“Ut Queant Laxis” Fowler, p. 384).
Organum Chant with two or more voice parts moving at first in parallel perfect intervals. This style eventually became known as "Ars Antiqua" (the old art). v a. parallel- separate parts move together, same direction and distance. v b. melismatic- one part fixed, the other moves, especially on one syllable.
Evolution of Notation Heighted Neumes- symbols (ecphonetic notation) around a single line drawn over the text for pitch reference. More lines were gradually added for more accurate pitch reference, leading to the development of the modern staff.
Evolution of Notation Heighted Neumes 12 th Century
Evolution of Notation Heighted Neumes th 13 Century
Ars Nova “The New Art, ” addition of rhythmic notation which began with the composers Leonin and Perotin in the “Notre Dame School” (Paris).
Ars Nova and the Notation of Rhythm Listening: Perotin’s Viderunt Omnes. Example: Melismatic Organum, Ars Nova.
Secular Music Troubadors- medieval folk musicians of southern France (Provence) and England. v Trouveres- medieval folk musicians northern France. v Minnesingers- medieval folk musicians of Germanic northern Europe. v
Prendes i Garde (Be on your guard) Take care, lest anyone see us If someone sees us, tell me. It’s just there in that wooded grove. Take care, lest anyone see us. That pleasant lass was looking after the animals, “Charming brunette, I would like to meet with you” Take care lest anyone see us, If someone sees us, tell me.
Secular Music Troubadors Listening: Guillaume d’Amien’s Prendes i Garde (Fowler, pp. 386 -387). Example: Troubador 13 th century monophonic song.