- Slides: 70
Music notation the staff
Music notation clefs
Script letter G
Middle C in G clef
Middle C in other clefs
Notes in the Grand Staff
Pitches • Refers to pitch only as in cycles per second • 440 Hz equals A above middle C • 220 Hz equals A below middle C
Overtone Series • All pitches except sine waves have these • Different emphasis on different overtones produce different timbres • Partials begin on 1, overtones begin on 0
Notes • Refers to pitch, duration, loudness, etc. • Notes equate to cope-events • Pitch is the second element of a copeevent
Tempo • Fast (q = 120) - Allegro • Moderate (q = 90) - Moderato • Slow (q = 60) - Adagio
Notes sounding alone • • One after another is called monody Or monophony Or melody Or musical line
Tonality • Tonality usually means notes sounding primarily according to a given scale • Major scales consist of stepwise intervals • Major scale: M 2 m 2 M 2 M 2 m 2 • Natural minor scale M 2 m 2 M 2 M 2 • Notes not in scale called chromatic
Key • Keys are defined by scales and can be centered around any one of 12 starting notes • To create the proper intervallic content some keys must have sharped and flatted notes • Key signatures make these easier to read
Motives • Motives are groups of 3 to 7 notes that have some distinctive property (pitch, rhythm, etc. ) • Motives are varied in many ways (transposition, inversion, extrapolation, etc. ) • Motives help identify longer melodic lines
Notes sounding together • Are called harmony if they move together • Are called polyphony or counterpoint if moving offset • Fugues and canons are examples of polyphony
Harmony • Harmony has function (syntax and semantics) • Harmonic syntax means what can follow what • Harmonic semantics means what constitutes the harmony itself
Harmonic syntax and semantics • In tonal music, some harmonies can follow other harmonics but not others • We use Roman numerals in indicate semantics as in a major scale: • I, IV, and V indicate Tonic, Subdominant, and Dominant harmonic called primary functions • ii (supertonic), iii (mediant), vi (submediant), and vii (leading-tone), called secondary functions
Harmonic syntax • I can be followed by anything • V is best followed by I (authentic) or vi (deceptive) but never IV • IV can be followed by V (mostly) and I • ii belongs to the IV family, iii the I family, vi the I family, and vii the V family interchangeably.
Harmonic syntax • I means home base • IV means moving toward V (predominant) • V means needs to go home
Phrases • Music consists of phrases usually as long as a human breath (based on past on singing) • Phrases end in cadences • Cadences usually end in I (authentic), V, (half), or V-vi (deceptive) • Phrases usually come in pairs in tonal music as in (cadences V and then I question/answer.
Modulation • Modulation means to subtly change keys for variety • Best key changes mean to move from a key 1 sharp or 1 flat more of less in key signature.
Periods • Phrases group into periods consisting usually of two matching Q and A phrases • Periods can repeat, repeat with variation, or contrast
Sections • Sections consist of two or more periods • Sections can consist of contrasting or similar periods
Form • Form delineates the material of a work or movement of music • Form is usually described by u. c. letters in alphabetical order • ABA form (called ternary) indicates one musical idea (section A) followed by a contrasting musical idea (section B) followed by a return of section A
Structure • Structure is NOT form • Structure indicates relative importance of musical material (hierarchy) • Structure deletes less important musica material in order to highlight the important musical material
MIDI • • • Musical Instrument Digital Interface Watch it: “MIDI interface” is redundant Does not create sound Like a musical score Channels tell sequencers (Finale, Sibelius, etc. ) when to turn on a channel, turn off a channel, etc. • Set the instrument in any channel you want
MIDI and Music Notation • Ontime: 0; Duration: 500 = an eighth-note in music notation • Ontime: 845; Duration: 260 = gibberish in music notation • Result: keep your cope-events in logical ontimes and logical durations • Triplets, etc. = 333, 334 durations, etc. • If you want good notation-be careful!!!
MIDI types • Performed MIDI files • Must quantize to a given duration that often alters the music severely • Non-performed MIDI files • Works best for analyzing music
Remember • Music notation is an algorithm created by other people that severely limits expression • Ledger lines, rhythm, pitch, etc. • MIDI need not have such limitations • Only if you wish to see your music represented
Great music is music that: • • Sells the most? Performed the most? Listened to the most? Talked about the most? Differing arrangements the most? Quoted the most? Lasts the longest?
If so • The best restaurant would be Burger King • The best film would be Titanic • The best author would be Stephen King • The best hotel would Best Western • The best music would be the Star Spangled Banner
Then what is it? • Best: music that does the most with the least • Worst: music that does the least with the most Or • Best: music that gets better the more you listen to it • Worst: music that you listen to once.
Best music is like an onion • Keep peeling off the layers and continue to discover something new.
Personal taste • There is no such thing as good music. • There is no such thing as bad music. • There is only music you like or don’t like.
George Lewis (1952 -) • improvises via trombone with his Voyager hardware and software • a portable computer, 'listens' via a microphone to Lewis' trombone improvisations • quickly generates musical responses that make appropriate melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic sense
Andrei Andreyevich Markov 1856 - 1922
Probability • Typically measured between 0. 0 and 1. 0 • For events following another event must total 1. 0 • Important in statistics • Be careful in establishing (e. g. , the probability of heads up on a tossed coin is forever 0. 5 no matter how many times the coin is tossed).
Zero order Markov Chain Pseudo-random choices.
First order Markov Chain indicates that the current event will effect the choice of the following event.
Second order Markov chain Two successive events will influence the next event
Example for Markov
Markov Chains • Are a type of grammar (syntax) • Many types of grammars (e. g. , finite state, recursive, augmented transition, etc. ) • These are typically linear • Robust grammars require hierarchy • Hierarchy is non-linear
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) • Markov works for representations (x) for actual states (x) only as in
Write code that will analyze first-order Markov info for monophonic music.
Define Lisp functions that: will transpose events any distance up or down.
a predicate determining whether or not its arg is a cope-event or not.
changes the tempo of an eventlist.
plays an eventlist backwards.
delays the beginning of an eventlist by any amount.
makes canons from an eventlist.
Assignment: Create Markov code to analyze data representing pitches
Send code to me via e-mail before next Thursday
Make sure the code works is well documented top down makes sense
Your midi files play them and discuss