- Slides: 32
Muscle and Skeletal Systems
Functions of the Skeletal System � 1. � 2. � 3. � 4. � 5. Support skeleton Move skeleton Protect vital organs Store minerals Produce blood cells
BONES �Attachment site for muscles �Gives the body shape and support �Protect the delicate organs of the heart/lungs, brain, spinal cord. �Stores minerals (Calcium and Phosphorous) �Produces red and white blood cells in the bone marrow
Break…. . � When a person breaks a bone, muscles, support and organs are at risk. � X-Rays broken can be given to determine is a bone is
�Bones are living �Bones have protein fibers that are surrounded by calcium salt �Bones provide the levers for the muscles to move.
BONE � � ◦ COMPACT BONE denser stronger SPONGY BONE hallow contains bone marrow
Haversian Canal: Channels where nerves and blood vessels run through dense bone
Bone Marrow: the inside of the bones where fat is stored and blood cells are made.
CARTILAGE � Cartilage does not contain blood vessels and is very flexible � In Adults, we have cartilage in the ears and tip of the nose.
Growth Plates �Growth plates are at the ends of long bones where the cartilage grows then ossification (the protein gets covered in calcium) occurs to turn the cartilage into bone. �This is how children grow taller. They are closed on adults
JOINTS… Hold bones together with connective tissue �Immovable �Pivot �Ball and socket �Hinge �Gliding (sliding)
Immovable Joint � Skull Bone � Plates that come together at joints but they have no movement.
Pivot Joint � Neck bones � Rounded end on the bone fits into a ring formed by another bone, allowing the bones to turn.
Ball and Socket Joint � Shoulder and Hips � Ball shaped bone fits into a cup like depression of anther bone.
Hinge Joint � Ankle, Elbow, Knee � Bones can only flex or extend and move along an axis.
Gliding (sliding) Joint � Wrist, Carpals (fingers/toes), Foot, and Palm of Hand � Bones meet a flat surfaces and glide past one another.
. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Akm. Ho 7 t 3 fy 4
Ligaments � Hold bones together at the joints � Connects to Bone
Tendon � Connects The bones muscles to When tendons tear, Muscles can not function as they are necessary to move bones
Muscular System � The main function of the muscular system is movement. � Muscles are the only tissue in the body that has the ability to contract and therefore move the other parts of the body that they are attached to � Related to the function of movement is the muscular system's second function: the maintenance of posture and body position.
Muscle Cell �Muscle fibers contain a lot of mitochondria for energy during movement.
Muscle Cells � Muscle are red and white. � The red muscle is red due to the red blood cells in the capillaries that brings Oxygen to the muscles � White muscle contracts faster and stronger (but tires easier due to less mitochondria)
MUSCLE �Skeletal Muscle: striated, voluntary, attached to bone. �Used for locomotion �Muscle fibers contain a lot of these �Smooth Muscle: involuntary and makes up organs �Cardiac Muscle: striated but involuntary and only in the heart.
Our skeletal system is covered with muscles.
How to muscles move? � Muscles move by a series of contracting and relaxing movements. � Muscles work in pairs where one relaxes and the other contracts to move the bone. � Muscles must work in pairs as muscle can only pull and not push bone. � Exercise is important in order to promote a healthy muscle-skeleton system. If the muscles are not strong enough, they can’t move the bones. � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=T-oz. RNVh. GVg
� Malfunctions of the Skeletal and Muscular Systems
Osteoporosis � Break down of the bone due to loss of calcium and vitamin D
ACL Tear � The ligament around the knee are injured or broken due to a sports injury of rapid pivot/turn.
Arthritis � Wear and tear on the ligaments causing pain to moveable joints. � This inflammation of the joints is very painful to these moveable joints.
Muscular Dystrophy (MS) � Hereditary disease where the muscles are progressively weakened due to an abnormal muscle protein
Tendonitis � Inflammation of the tendon at the site where muscle connects to bone.