Multilingualism Regional Minority Languages Paradigms for Languages of

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Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages: Paradigms for ‘Languages of the Wider World’ School of

Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages: Paradigms for ‘Languages of the Wider World’ School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 16– 17 April 2009 Once isolated; now multilingual? Language practices & attitudes in Volendam and Inner Mongolia Lisa Lim, Anna Karregat & Wu Yuncang University of Amsterdam

Once isolated… Volendam Inner Mongolia • • • C. 1462: poor fishing village, part

Once isolated… Volendam Inner Mongolia • • • C. 1462: poor fishing village, part of Edam, in North Holland, on Zuiderzee, with poor connections to Edam and rest of NL Individual cultural identity: traditional costume, special customs, catholic religion, Volendam dialect 1927 -33: Zuiderzee dammed to become IJsselmeer Post WW 2: connections outside • • • C. 12 th. C: Mongol tribes, 13 th C: Great Mongol Empire After 14 th C Ming Dynasty: expelled to N or S of Great Desert: the latter --> Inner Mongolia ‘horse-back tribe’, with nomadic pastoral life, hunting & herding, diet distinct from agricultural people, traditional dress, own ethnic history, music, poetry, Mongol language 1947: autonomous region of PR China Modern day assimilation into larger nation state --> ?

Institutional support Media: • Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant – Volendams: 1 (/25) radio channel,

Institutional support Media: • Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant – Volendams: 1 (/25) radio channel, 3 (/31) TV channels which use Dutch – Mongol: 1 radio & 1 TV channel (provincial level) Education: • Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant – Volendams prohibited – before Cultural Revolution 1965, own Mongol education system; present support for minority languages but encouragement of Putonghua; Putonghua (and English) compulsory from primary sschool, necessary for college entrance exam; decrease in Mongol MOI schools

Demography Volendam Inner Mongolia • • High group concentration in Volendam (74% within Edam.

Demography Volendam Inner Mongolia • • High group concentration in Volendam (74% within Edam. Volendam; but 0. 13% in NL); pop. c. 21, 000 Little immigration/emigration; Volendammers want to live in V their entire life, including young people Typical dense and multiplex social network • • Substantial Han Chinese immigration (industry, settlement in developing area); Mongols --> farming ~15% Mongol; pop. c. 4. 2 mill Public domains: 95% Han Chinese Migration of Mongols to urban regions (occupational, economic opportunities in industrialising China) Substantial mixed marriage (38% of minority group mixed marriage with Han Chinese)

Another LWW: Enter English Volendam Inner Mongolia • • English dominant on radio (popular

Another LWW: Enter English Volendam Inner Mongolia • • English dominant on radio (popular music), frequent on TV • • 1949: one of compulsory courses from primary school to college College entrance exam Jobs require English (not Mongol)

Language use (domains, interlocutors): Inner Mongolia

Language use (domains, interlocutors): Inner Mongolia

Language use (domains, interlocutors): Volendam

Language use (domains, interlocutors): Volendam

Language use (daily activities): Inner Mongolia

Language use (daily activities): Inner Mongolia

Language use (daily activities): Volendam

Language use (daily activities): Volendam

Attitudes: Inner Mongolia

Attitudes: Inner Mongolia

Attitudes: Volendam

Attitudes: Volendam

Attitudes towards transmission: Inner Mongolia

Attitudes towards transmission: Inner Mongolia

Attitudes towards transmission: Volendam

Attitudes towards transmission: Volendam

… Now multilingual? Volendam Inner Mongolia Increase in Dutch, via • Parents with children

… Now multilingual? Volendam Inner Mongolia Increase in Dutch, via • Parents with children in home domain Increase in Putonghua, via • Parents in home domain (1/4 cf. 1/10 in parents’ generation) • Media (3/4 cf. 1/4) Increase in English, via • Internet (40 -50% cf. 20% in parents’ generation), and chatrooms etc (5% cf. 0) Increase in English, via • School (100% cf. 0 in parents’ generation) • Media (1/4 cf. 0) ‘Leakiness’ between Volendams and Dutch with youngest generation (mid teens) – ‘leaky diglossia’; glocalisation Bilingual CS (Mongolian-Putonghua) as increasingly frequent code amongst younger generation – CS as unmarked; monolectal CS

References Karregat, Anna. 2008. Language maintenance or shift in Volendam. MA dissertation, University of

References Karregat, Anna. 2008. Language maintenance or shift in Volendam. MA dissertation, University of Amsterdam. Wu Yuncang. 2008. Language Maintenance or Shift: The Mongols in Inner Mongolia of China. MA dissertation, University of Amsterdam.