- Slides: 36
Multilingualism • Language as Thing
Multilingualism: Language as Thing • What are Multilingual Commuinities –What leads to Multilingual Communities; – Are multilingual communities stable? • Question of what is a language? –What is the difference between a language and a dialect? • What are standard languages? • Language Access as a resource: –The use of Wolof in Senegal Bilingualism • Lingua Francas and Pidgin-Creole Languages –What are they? How did they develop? • National Language Policy
Who Speaks What • Mandarin 17. 3% • English 08. 4% • Hindi 07. 3% • Spanish 06. 9% • Russian 04. 9% • Bengali 03. 5% • Arabic 03. 4% • Portuguese 03. 2% • Malay-Indonesian 02. 8% • Japanese 02. 2% • French 02. 2% • German 02. 1%
Map of Sierra Leone
Langua ge Use in Sierra Leone English Krio National Lg, Education, Christian Churches, Government, Western Educated Trading of goods, National Lingua Franca Mende Regional Lingua Franca South, Produce Trading-Market Limba Palm wine tappers Temne Northern Lingua Franca Arabic Koranic Education, Mosques, Imams Manding Gara Dyers o • With the exception of English all these function as community languages • Other Community Vai, Kuranko, Krim, Bullom, Susu, Yalunka, Temne, Fulfulde, Kono, Loko • Note that most usages can be clearly associated with specific institutions.
What leads to Multilingual Communities; Are multilingual communities stable?
Question of what is a language? What is the difference between a language and a dialect? • The Problem Language v dialect: • Popular definition. – Dialects are structurally inferior to languages, lacking formal grammatical rules and standards of speaking; – Dialects are communicatively inferior to languages, lacking the full range of expressibility found in a formal language; – Dialects are orthographically inferior to languages, lacking their own system of writing; – In short, dialects are inferior to languages.
The linguistic view of languages and dialects. • Dialect: A dialect represents a commonly held way of speaking for a community, admitting to only minor variations in structure. (Mutual Intelligibility) • Language: A language consists of a cluster dialects that are found to be mutually intelligible. • two dialects are held to be mutually intelligible when a speaker of one dialect finds that he can understand, without too much difficulty the speech of a person speaking another dialect and vice versa. – British and American English, are mutually intelligible – prior to the Norman invasion of 1066, when English and Norwegian were mutually intelligible, that they were dialects of the same language. – The Dutch/German interface (Indeterminate results)
The Political definition. • A language is a dialect with an army and a navy, (i. e. , a government). • Examples Norway and Sweden, Spain and Italy, Netherlands and Germany. • This definition seems to work better than the formal linguistic one. • But not perfect • Other Examples:
Tests of the Political Definition • Definition could be used to exclude Catalan, a Romance "language" spoken in the Barcelona area of Spain because it is not backed up by an army and navy. • Chinese. While we may be popularly aware that people in China speak Chinese we may not be as aware that many of the so called "dialects" of Chinese are not mutually intelligible. • Igbo is spoken by over 3 million people in eastern Nigeria. Yet, here, too, not all dialects of Igbo are mutually intelligible. • English. The claim has been made, that not all dialects of English are mutually intelligible. When National Public Television presented a 15 part series on The Story of English many of the "dialects" represented had to have subtitles because they were not at least clearly mutually intelligible. • My Mende speaking friend informed me that he could understand the news broadcasts from Liberia which were in Bandi. – Neither Mende nor Bandi has an army or a navy.
Definition: literary dialect • • A language is a collection of varieties which all use the same (set) writing system (orthography) Complexity of a writing system Advantage of the linguistic view of the language/dialect distinction: Also undercuts the claim that Western languages are largely superior to Nonwestern ones. But what do you call a “language” without a literary tradition? Is this not ethnocentric?
Commentary. • All definitions faulty • The popular definition fails empirically and in its Eurocentricity; • The linguistic definition fails empirically and • The army/navy definition, while appealing fails empirically as well.
The Problem • Perhaps there is something wrong with the dichotomy between language and dialect. • Not all languages draw the distinction between language and dialect. In Bamanankan: no distinction between language and dialect. • The suffix -kan which means something like `manner of speaking of'. – Bamanan-kan means `the manner of speaking of the Bambara – Hausakan would translate as `the Hausa language. ' – Bamakokan `the manner of speaking in Bamako, the capital of Mali'. – In this case we would translate the word as `the dialect of Bambara spoken in Bamako. '
Conclusion. • The formal linguistic distinction between language and dialect is unworkable: • There is no way to group the dialects of the world into languages in such a way that the dialects within are mutually intelligible and such that they are not mutually unintelligible with dialects without. • The distinction arose in association with the development of writing and in that context served a useful purpose, namely to distinguish between the written form and those oral varieties which subscribe to it. This distinction, however, is not absolute, but relevant only to situations where a writing system has been instituted. Consequently when it is applied to areas where no written system has been instituted, problems develop. • Are we to call languages where no written system has been installed dialects? The problem with this is that such a term will never be purged of the notions of illegitimacy and deviance which arose with the language/dialect distinction.
What are standard languages? • Standard languages associated with literacy. • Accorded a prestige at the expense of other varieties considered as part of the language system. • In this sense it is ideological – privilege. • Often speakers who don’t have access to this variety feel inferior. • Refusal to speak the standard variety may be an act of resistance.
The Redesign of Shona • Shona area reasonably linguistically coherent. • Differences exagurated by different Christian missions developing their own writing systems. • Doke comission unified the language but favored the most powerful missions. • Kalanga was reassigned to Ndebele, a related but quite different variety.
The invention of Tsonga • Area in western transvaal was a refugee area • Henri Berthoud was assigned as a Swiss missionary to the area. • While many “Bantu varieties were spoken, no lingua franca had emerged. • Henri Berthoud went about inventing one called Tsonga. • Later went on to develop a culture with folklore to go along with it.
Language Access as a resource: The use of Wolof in Senegal Bilingualism
Fulfulde versus Wolof verses Serer • Wolof – two types – Ethnic Wolof – Wolof Popular (80% of senegal • Fula Communities: Ful’be and Halpularen • Serer – Several different languages (not mutually intelligible – Defined by the French) • Different Attitudes toward Wolof
Lingua Francas and Pidgin-Creole Languages What are they? How did they develop? • • Lingua franca versus Pidgin and Creole Lingua Franca Pidgin Creole
Stages of Pidgin/Creole Development (Todd) • Phase I: Pidgin – Arise from multilingual contact situations – Nobody's first language – Minimal level of communication. – Lexical Base – Lexical Reduction – Incipient Pidgins tend to die out. – Cocoliche • Phase II: Creole –Arises from a pidgin –Acquires first language speakers –Increase in Lexicon –Grammaticalization
Phase III: Influence from the dominant base 1. Phonology: Cameroon Pidgin English Phase IV: Post Creole 1. t ri trit continuum story street 2. sikin silak siton Phase VI: Total skin slack stone 3. studi skul Absorption (Dwyer) study school 2. Lexical 1. dress k ombimanhan wandaful move friend right amazing 3. Syntactical influence 1. use of dominate base grammatical devices 2. concordial agreement 3. affixes -ing, -s pl 4. tense markers
Samples of English-Based Pidgin/Creoles Pidgin (Cameroun, West Africa) • Mek a tel wuna ha we masa Tr ki bin brok i masa Tr]ki ben brok i bak. I g t wan de bak. I get wan de wen w n Masa Tr ki and Masa Tr]ki and Masa Pik bin bi kom bi. Pik bin bi kom]bi. Wan de masa Pik bin de gif m ni f masa m]ni f] masa Tr]ki, Tr ki, f seka se masa f]seka se masa Tr]ki n] Tr ki n g t m ni f g, t m]ni f] bay ch]p. bay ch p. Masa Tr ki Masa Tr]ki bin de t, l bin de t l masa Pik se w, n i g, t w n i g t m ni i go m]ni i go de bakam. I d n te d]n te soteee b]t Masa soteee b t Masa Tr ki Tr]ki n] de gif Masa Pik i
Krio (Sierra Leone, West Africa) • Wi stil de t k b t rilig n an politiks, w , na di kayn of g d w motal man de gri tu an w i g t f du witi di k ntri i bizn s. We de t l tenki f de want m welh i n s t d m m t but g t s mting f se b t di ting w we de t k. I de sho se wi n de t k f n ting. We bin d n gri se rilig n an politiks n to wan. • We are still talking about religon and politics, about the kind of God which humans believe in and what he has to do with the country's business. We offer thanks for the one time he didn't shut their mouths but had something to say about what we are discussing. We agreed that religion and politics are not one.
Sea Islands Krio <Gullah> • How Bra Hawn Got His Long Mawth. Bra rabit bin in i rays fiel to hab s i rays an di san g t b ri hat an bra rabit lef i fil an g n p on di flat bank w som bush de an i sed n anda de bush in de shed an bigin f wisel. Dem dez bra rabit an bra hawn bin gud frenz. Bra hawn kam long an hiri bra de wisel. I se bra rabit, a wish a kuda wisel laka yu na. Bra rabit t l-am se i mawt i stan for wistel. Rawn mawt ain for wistl. If yu had l g mawt laka mayn yu kuda whisel. . • How brother dog got his muzzle. Brother rabit was in his rice field to harvest his rice and the sun was very hot so brother rabit left his field and went up on the flat bank where a tree was and sat under the tree in the shade and started to whistle. Those days brother rabit and brother dog were good friends. Brother dog came along and heard his friend whistling. . He said to brother rabit, I wish I could whistle like you. Brother rabit told him that his mouth was made for whistling. A round mouth is not for whistling. If you had a long mouth like mine, you could whistle.
Sranan (Surinam, South America) • Wan konde (kingdom) ben de, an wan foru (bird) ben de bari (screech). Ef a bar so, na her kondre e trubu. Konu pot taki, wan suma kir na foru, a sa tro wan uman pikin fo eng. • There once was a kingdom, and there was a bird that screeched. When it screetched, the whole kingdom was disturbed. The king announced that the person who killed the bird would marry a daughter of his.
Belizian Creole • A wan tak bout sohn a di tapik dehn weh mi kohn op da nite. Shore lat a pipl shif bak an foat fran Inglish to Krio wen di taak. . . if you de taak bout science, wy you mos expek fi taak eena Krio, if da eena Inglish yu laan bout ahn. Afta aal, lat a di wod dehn yu yuse eena science da English wod. . . like wen you di taak bout kompyuta ting. • I want to talk about some of the topicks which I raised last night. There a lot of people who shift back and forth from English to Krio when they talk…. If you talk about science then you expect to talk in Krio…
Neo-Solomonic (Solomon Islands) • Orayt, mif� la i go go • Very well. We kept l� ng s� lwater, going on the sea, lukawtim fish, naw hunting fish, and a win i kem, naw mif� la wind arose; now we i go � lebawt long were going in kinu, naw bigf� la win canoes, and an i kem naw, mif� la go, immense wind no kachim � ni ples i arose, and we were kwaytf� la. thrown around and ran very fast (before the wind).
History of Pidgin/Creoles: Working Backwards: • Camerounian Pidgin – Example – Influences clearly tracable to S. L. Krio – reasons • Sierra Leone Krio – present form took shape in 19 th century – pre 18 th century S. L. pidgin closer to modern Camerounian pidgin than 18 th century nigerian/cameroun pidgin – British used as a base to wage an Anti-slavery mission. – Used Freetowner's to missionize. • Recaptives (39% of population) largely southern nigerian (Yoruba and Igbo) • Jamaican maroons arrived in Freetown in 1800
Sierra Leone Krio • • • Jamaican creole • Plantation society • Definition of creole • Slave revolt - not generally discussed • Most slaves came from • surinam 1667 Surinam • Three dialects of pidgin • Sranan Tongo, Saramakan, and Jukan • • Occupied by british 16251675 • Swap with dutch for new york Barbados • staging point from Africa • also went to N. America Gullah • Example • Evidence of Mende influence Post-Creole Continuum • De. Camp's work in Jamaica • Bill Stewart's and Dillard's
Is there more? • Connection to French-Based Creoles – Morris Goodman's comparative work. • Sabir Hypothesis – The three major Pidgin-Creoles (English, French and Portuguese) are related to an earlier lingua-franca (Sabir) through a process called relexification
National Language Policy • US – Virtually no language policy – Work of the National Foreign Language Center • African Languages – The work of Ngugi wa Thi’ongo – The need to have and use African languages. • National African Language Policy • The work of Tollefson
Final Paper Question • Traditional approaches to language and culture have operated from a structurally oriented perspective. In class we have examined several post-structural, discourse oriented approaches. Select five such authors that you consider poststructural and indicate a) their area of work and b) how this contributes to the study of language and culture and discourse. • You may find the following terms useful in your discussion: self, praxis, power, frame, face, illocution, institution, the cooperative principle • Two double-spaced pages should do it, but take more if you need to.