- Slides: 9
Mughal, Ottoman and Safavid Empires
Who are the Ottomans? • A group of people who overthrew the Byzantine Empire in 1453. • The considered themselves “warriors of Islam” or ghazis • Most successful ghazis was a man named Osman and his followers were called Ottomans. • Osman and his successor replaced bows and arrows with guns and conquered new territory for the Ottomans. • Ottoman rulers soon took the title Sultan “One with power”
How did Ottomans treat the people? Muslims • Had to serve in Turkish army and make contributions required by faith. Non-Muslims • Did not serve in the military but had to pay for exemption with a small tax.
Ottomans take over Constantinople in 1453 • Located on the Bosporus Strait, was good for trade. • Connected Europe with Asia.
Suleyman the Magnificent • I am the most famous Sultan who brought the Ottoman empire to its peak size! • I am most remembered for my laws and magnificent lifestyle! Oh…. . and killing my sons too. • Ruled during a very prosperous time. Look at my beautiful mosque. • Known in the West as Magnificent and the Ottomans called him the Lawgiver
Devshirme and Janissaries • The sultan’s army drafted boys from Christian territories under a policy called Devshirme. • A group of 30, 000 soldiers became janissaries and were loyal to the sultan. • Janissaries converted to Islam and had the opportunity to rise into high government or military positions.
The Empire Declines • Suleyman killed his ablest son and drove another into exile. His third son, the incompetent Selim II, inherited the throne. • This led to a long line of weak rulers. But the Ottoman Empire continued to influence the world into the 20 th century.
Cultural Blending • In the Safavid Empire, the language spoken was Persian. But after the area converted to Islam, a significant number of Arabic words appeared in the Persian language.
Akbar and the Taj Mahal • Akbar practiced religious tolerance but Islam remained the dominant religion. • Shah Jahan of India built the Taj Mahal as a memorial to his wife who died during child birth.