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What is motivation and why does it matter? � Motivation is the desire to complete a task quickly and effectively. � Can be classified as intrinsic and extrinsic: ◦ Intrinsic – comes from the satisfaction derived from working on and completing a task ◦ Extrinsic – comes from external rewards associated with working on a task, for example pay and other benefits � Motivated workers are highly productive, which means lower costs, and higher profits, for the business.
Extrinsic Motivation? � http: //www. ibbusinessandmanagement. com/ 25 -motivation. html
Characteristics of a motivated worker � Low absenteeism (reduces costs and maintains high productivity) � Punctual (time is not wasted) � High quality work (minimal waste reduces costs) � Take more care and have fewer accidents as a result � Do not distract fellow workers unnecessarily
Characteristics of a motivated worker � Tend to stay longer at an employer (reduces recruitment costs) � When they move, it is for a positive reason (eg a better job) � Few grievances with the employer, resulting fewer disputes (so productivity remains high) � Respond positively and quickly to superiors in the organization � More likely to make suggestions and take on responsibilities
Warning signs of poor motivation in the workplace � High absenteeism rates – percentage of workforce that miss work without valid reasons � High labor turnover rates – number of staff who leave as a percentage of the total workforce � High wastage level – a high percentage of defective output or substandard work � Increasing number of customer complaints – because of the poorer quality of output
Warning signs of poor motivation in the workplace � Low-quality output – workers are more likely to make mistakes and care less about quality � Poor punctuality – poor timekeeping � Increasing number of disciplinary problems – corrective measures are put into place to deal less productive staff
10 ways to be unmotivated � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=- e 7 Goi. Hr 3 g. Q
How to overcome laziness � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ZWZcbufh Rpo
Sample of unmotivated workers � http: //www. ibbusinessandmanagement. com/ 25 -motivation. html
Motivation theorists � Frederick Winslow Taylor � Abraham Maslow � Frederick Herzberg � J. S. Adams � D. H. Pink
F. W. Taylor’s Theory � Assumes workers are motivated only by personal gain (i. e. money). � Broke jobs down into a series of processes, then worked out how much output each employee should be able to produce each day. � Treated workers like machines. � Promoted the use of division of labor and specialization in the production process to improve efficiency and output.
Limitations of F. W. Taylor’s Theory � Too simplistic (people are motivated by many things). � Increasing wages does not always lead to increased output. � It can be hard to measure the output of some workers e. g. a teacher or a police officer.
Ford and Taylor Scientific Management � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=8 Pdm. Nbq t. Dd. I
Abraham Maslow � Proposed a hierarchy of needs. � Workers are motivated by certain needs. Once a need has been met, they are motivated by the needs of the next level.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Limitations of Maslow’s Theory � Some levels do not exist for certain people. � Some rewards can fill several needs (e. g. money can provide food, security and status).
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=CF 2 c 1 q_O vd. E
Frederick Herzberg’s Theory � Identified TWO sets of needs; Hygiene Factors and Motivating Factors. � Hygiene factors do not motivate workers, but if they are not present they can demotivate them instead (salary; relationship with supervisor and fellow workers). � Motivating factors include being recognised for work done, achieving goals, personal development, and interesting work.
Adam’s Equity Theory � The theory is built-on the belief that employees become de-motivated, both in relation to their job and their employer, if they feel as though their inputs are greater than the outputs. Employees can be expected to respond to this in different ways, including de-motivation (generally to the extent the employee perceives the disparity between the inputs and the outputs exist), reduced effort, becoming disgruntled, or, in more extreme cases, perhaps even disruptive.
Pink Theory (2009) � Factors that drive or motivate ◦ Autonomy – self-sufficient to direct our own lives ◦ Mastery – self-improvement to learn and create new things ◦ Purpose – self-esteem and drive to do better by ourselves
Motivation � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=u 6 XAPnu. F j. Jc
Financial Motivation � Wages (time and piece rates) � Salary (fixed annual rate) � Commission � Profit-related pay � Performance-related pay � Employee share ownership schemes � Fringe payments (benefits or perks)
Non-Financial Motivation � Job enrichment – gives workers more challenging jobs with more responsibilities � Job rotation – involves workers performing different tasks at the same level of complexity � Job enlargement – broadening or increasing the number of tasks that an employee performs � Empowerment – granting workers the authority to be in charge of their own jobs and to execute their own ideas � Teamworking – staff work with fellow employees
Others: � Recognition and praise � The working environment � Continuous professional development � Delegation � Worker participation