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MOTHERBOARD The MOTHERBOARD is the main circuit board of your computer and is also known as the main board or logic board. If you ever open your computer, the biggest piece of silicon you see is the motherboard. Attached to the motherboard, you'll find the CPU, ROM, memory RAM expansion slots, PCI slots, and USB ports. It also includes controllers for devices like the HARD DRIVE, DVD DRIVE, KEYBOARD, and MOUSE. Basically, the MOTHERBOARD is what makes everything in your computer work together.
FUNCTION OF THE MOTHERBOARD A MOTHERBOARD houses the BIOS which is the simple software run by a computer when initially turned on. Other components attach directly to it, such as the memory, CPU (Central Processing Unit), graphics card, sound card, hard-drive, disk drives, along with various external ports and peripherals. MOTHERBOARD is the unit that integrates all your other parts into one system. Your video card, sound card, processor chips, power, mouse, keyboard all plug into it!
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD Socket A Motherboards These motherboards are meant for the AMD and Durons processors. The Socket A motherboard is also known as Socket 464 motherboard. The CPU socket in the motherboard has 462 pins and it comes in a PGA (Pin Grid Array) packaging. The bus speed of this type of motherboard is 100 to 200 MHz.
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD Socket 378 Motherboards This type of motherboard is meant for the Pentium 4 processors. It also comes in a PGA package and has 478 pins. The bus speed is 100 to 200 MHz. This motherboard can also support Intel Pentium 4 EE and Intel Pentium M processor. This type of motherboard is also known as Socket N motherboard.
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD Socket T Motherboards Also known as LGA 775, this type of motherboard is meant for Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core 2 Quad and Inel Xeon processor. Of course, this motherboard can also support other Intel processors such as the Celeron, P-4, Pentium D, Celeron D and Pentium XE processor. Its specifications include 775 pins and a very high bus speed of 1600 MHz. It also comes in a PGA package.
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD Socket 939 The Socket 939 is meant mainly for the AMD family. It can support AMD processors like the Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X 2 and Opetron. It has 939 pins and can have a bus speed from 200 to 1000 MHz. Just like the other computer motherboard types described above, it also comes in a PGA package.
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD Socket AM 3 Motherboards Socket AM 3 is among the most recently developed motherboards. Introduced in 2009, this motherboard is meant for the AMD Phenom II and AMD Athlon II processors. It has 941 pins and a bus speed range of 200 to 3200 MHz. The packaging for Socket AM 3 motherboard is PGA.
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD The Socket H or LGA 1156 is another recent motherboard that has been introduced in the year 2009 and is meant for the Intel Core i 3, Intel Core i 5 and Intel Core i 7 processors. It has 1156 pins and comes in LGA (Large Grid Array) packaging.
Motherboard Type Based on Dimensions ATX Motherboards The ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) motherboard has a length of 12 inches and a width of 7. 5 inches. The I/O ports and USB ports meant for the motherboard are integrated directly into it. The bus speed in ATX motherboard is 100 MHz. This board is mainly meant for the Intel processors.
Motherboard Type Based on Dimensions Full AT Motherboards This was the first type of motherboard, which were 12 inches wide and 11 inches long. This motherboard suffered from a lot of problems like access to components was cumbersome and most importantly, the heating problem.
Motherboard Type Based on Dimensions Baby AT Motherboards With a dimension of 10 by 8. 5 inches, this motherboard is meant for the classic Pentium processors. The DIN keyboard connector at the top right corner of this motherboard makes recognizing this motherboard a relatively simple task.
PARTS OF A MOTHERBOARD CPU- Central Processing Unit It is also known as the microprocessor or the processor. It is the brain of the computer, and it is responsible for fetching, decoding and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations. The processor chip is identified by the processor type and the manufacturer; and this information is usually inscribed on the processor chip e. g. Intel 386, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 386, Cyrix 486, Pentium MMX, (old processor types) Intel Core 2 Duo e. t. c.
PARTS OF A MOTHERBOARD Main Memory / Random Access Memory (RAM) Random access memory or RAM most commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data when you are working with your computer to enhance the computer performance. In other words, it is the working place of your computer where active programs and data are loaded so that any time the processor requires them, it doesn't have to fetch them from the hard disk which will take a longer access time
PARTS OF A MOTHERBOARD BIOS- Basic Input Output System BIOS is a term that stands for basic input/output system, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the term BIOS by another name— device drivers, or justd rivers. In other words, the BIOS is drivers, meaning all of them. BIOS is essentially the link between hardware and software in a system.
PARTS OF A MOTHERBOARD CMOS-Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which is kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on. CMOS devices require very little power to operate. The CMOS RAM is used to store basic Information about the PC’s configuration e. g. • Floppy disk and hard disk drive types • CPU • RAM size • Date and time • Serial and parallel port information • Plug and Play information • Power Saving settings
PARTS OF A MOTHERBOARD Cache Memory It is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand. Most CPUS have an internal cache (in-built in the processor) which is referred to as Level-I cache memory or primary cache memory. This can be supplemented by external cache memory fitted on the motherboard. This is the Level-2 Cache memory or secondary cache. Some CPUs have both L 1 and L 2 cache built-in and designate the separate cache chip as Level 3 (L 3) cache.
PARTS OF A MOTHERBOARD Expansion Buses An input/output pathway from the CPU to peripheral devices typically made up of a series of slots on the motherboard. Expansion boards (cards) plug into the bus. PCI is the common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms. Buses carry signals, such as data; memory addresses, power and control signals from component to component. Expansion buses enhance the PCs capabilities by allowing users to add missing features in their computers in form of adapter cards that are slotted in expansion slots. The different types of buses include PCI, ISA, and EISA expansion bus.
How Motherboard Works. mp 4