Mosaics History of Mosaics Mosaic can be traced

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Mosaics

Mosaics

History of Mosaics • Mosaic can be traced back through several cultures. • The

History of Mosaics • Mosaic can be traced back through several cultures. • The first culture attributed with mosaics was the Aboriginal Native Americans with intricate pebble and sand pattern design, however they had no practical function. • The second culture was the Ancient Greeks. They created solid floors of pebbles in designs. • The Romans style of mosaic is more like today. They used cut tiles in several patterns to decorate floors and walls.

 • The use of mosaic declined following the Renaissance. • Venice began the

• The use of mosaic declined following the Renaissance. • Venice began the industrial tile production which enabled the beginning of the reverse method. • Following a lull in production, mosaics are now mainly used in context with fine art, and home decoration.

Types of Tiles • • • Vitreous Tesserae Smalti Gold and Silver Smalti Mirror

Types of Tiles • • • Vitreous Tesserae Smalti Gold and Silver Smalti Mirror Tiles Ceramic Tiles Marble Tiles Broken China Found Objects Homemade Tiles

Acceptable Surfaces • • • Plywood Fiberboard Perspex and Glass Mesh Cement Backer Board

Acceptable Surfaces • • • Plywood Fiberboard Perspex and Glass Mesh Cement Backer Board Tile Backing Board

Adhesives • • Aleens Tacky Glue Mastick Silicone Epoxy Glue

Adhesives • • Aleens Tacky Glue Mastick Silicone Epoxy Glue

Tools • • Glass Cutters Score and Snap Pliers Nippers

Tools • • Glass Cutters Score and Snap Pliers Nippers

Application Methods • The Direct Method – Apply mastick to the underside of the

Application Methods • The Direct Method – Apply mastick to the underside of the tiles and then place them on the design. • Indirect/Reverse Method – The tiles are temporarily stuck upside down on a strong surface like brown craft paper by using water based glue. Leave a space between each tile. Try to make them the same space between each tile. After the design is complete, apply the mastick to the prepared surface with a trial. Then flip your tiled paper upside down on top of the mastick and apply pressure to set the tiles. Once they dry, apply water to the paper and soak it off.

Grouting • Once the applied tiles are dried, spread a layer of grout on

Grouting • Once the applied tiles are dried, spread a layer of grout on the tiles so that it settles in between the tiles. Choose a color of grout that matches well with the tiles. Spread the grout over the tiles with a squeegee. Once the entire surface is covered, begin removing the excess off of the tiles with a damp sponge until the entire surface is clean. Once finished, buff the surface with a soft cloth.

Safety • Wear goggles when cutting tiles or glass. • Always clean off surfaces

Safety • Wear goggles when cutting tiles or glass. • Always clean off surfaces with a brush and never your hand. • Do not put grout or adhesives down the sink, it will clog the sink. • Do not eat or drink in the room or where you are working.

Vocabulary • Buttering – Putting the adhesive directly on the back of the tiles

Vocabulary • Buttering – Putting the adhesive directly on the back of the tiles • Casting – Making a mosaic surface like a slab to add tiles to. • Direct Method – Where the mosaic is glued directly to the surface in it’s final position the right face up. • Grout –The substance used to fill the gaps between the tiles. • Indirect Method – Where the tiles are temporarily stuck in reverse onto a craft paper before it is turned over to be fixed into it’s final position. • Interstices – The spaces between the tiles.

§ Nippers –An essential tool used to cut the tiles. § Smalti –Irregular pieces

§ Nippers –An essential tool used to cut the tiles. § Smalti –Irregular pieces of hand cut enamelled glass which is left ungrouted. § Tesserae – The tiles or objects used to make the mosaic. § Vitreous Glass – Square mosaic tiles made to a regular size and shape. One side is smooth and the other is rigid for better adhesion.