- Slides: 10
MORPHOLOGY THE STUDY OF WORD STRUCTURE
INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY THE STUDY OF HOW MORPHEMES ARE USED TO CREATE DIFFERENT GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS (ADDS ADDITIONAL MEANING)
VIRTUOUS ERRORS • The overgeneralisation of words • These are not mistakes • They are not wrong • They have an underlying logic to them • Children are applying rules to their own language use • Supports the Nativist Theory • If the child hasn’t heard such expressions, why so they use them? • Children start to apply rules to their language that they have observed in others – ‘-ed’ ending used on verbs to create Past Tense, so they apply this to All Verbs thus creating a virtuous error. • It is unlikely that these examples have been learned from adults • BUT a child may hear and use non-standard varieties of English and be influenced by them • OR older siblings who are learning language.
THE WUG TEST • Jean Berko (1950) invented the WUG to test overgeneralisation. • This tested the ‘–s’ plural • She found that when children were faced with this imaginary creature, they tended to create the plural ‘WUGS’. • 4 -5 year olds: 76% created the plural • 5 -7 year olds: 97% created the plural • Beroko used other nonsense words with similar results. – LUN- they added an ‘s’ – HEATH- they added an ‘s’ (a virtuous error) – ZIB- (verb) child says ‘zibber’ • Berko used an imaginary creature to discount copying.
REGRESSION • As children get older virtuous errors increase as the child has picked up new words they presume that they have the same grammar as the ones they know. – E. g. ‘ holded the plane and it flied’
RODGER BROWN (1970) • Early use of the correct term: possibly due to simple repetition of the adult. • Realisation that most verbs take ‘-ed’ in the past tense from so the child applies the rule more actively creating VIRTUOUS ERRORS. • The child appears to the time before the correct endings appear, fully grasped.
THE ACQUISITION OF INFLECTION 1. Progressive aspect verb endings ‘-ING’ – E. g. ‘I walking’ 2. Prepositions ‘–ON’ – E. g. ‘put nappy on’ 3. The U-Shaped Graph Copied Phrase Plural Noun Endings ‘-S’ – E. g. ‘two boys’ Possessive ‘-S’ – E. g. ‘mummy’s bag’ 5. Determiners ‘THE’, ‘A’, ‘MY’ – E. g. ‘give me the milk’ 6. Regular Past Tense ‘-ED’ – E. g. ‘I walked' 7. 3 rd Person Singular Present Tense ‘-S’ – E. g. ‘she sees me’ Accuracy 4. Fully Understood Actively Applied Virtuous Error Time
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES • Used to make entirely new words and applying the patterns children hear around them. • Prefix: a beginning that adapts the word in a certain way – E. g. UNhappy • Suffix: an ending that adapts the word in a certain way – E. g. work. AHOLIC
THE THREE MAIN PATTERNS • CONVERSION: using a word as a different word class – E. g. butter function: ‘I jammed the bread’ • AFFIXATION: applying endings to words to create new ones – E. g. ‘-y’ endings: its croudy in there. • COMPOUNDING: joining existing words together to create new combinations – E. g. someone who rides a horse is ‘Horsy-man’ – E. g. someone who rides a tractor is ‘Tractor-man’ In many cases, these processes can lead to the formation of perfectly acceptable standard forms of words but in some cases new or nonsense words are created.