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INDEX 1. Wh at is Morphology ? 2. Th e building blocks of wor ds 2. 1 Mo rpheme 2. 1. 1 Free Mor pheme 2. 1. 2 Bou nd morpheme 2. 2 A llomorphs 2. 3 Ro ot 2. 4 Stem 2. 5 Co mpound 2. 6 Le xemic Information 3. Af f ixes 3. 1 Prefix 3. 2 Suffix 3. 3 Infix 3. 4 Circumfix 4. C litics 4. 1 E nclitics 4. 2 Proclitics 4. 3 Mesoclitics 4. 4 E ndoclitics
WHAT IS MORPHOLOGY ? Morphology is the study of word formation , including the ways new words are coined in the languages of the world , and the way forms of words are varied depending on how they are used in the sentences. (Lieber, 2009: 2) Morphology is the study of shapes.
THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF WORDS Morpheme is the smallest unit of a language that does convey some kind of information. A morpheme is an abstraction of the various types of morphs that a language has. Morpheme can be either free or bound. - Free morpheme stands alone as its own word. - Bound morpheme needs some kind of host to attach to. Ex: The oxen pulled the chart.
ALLOMORPHS Allomorphs are phonologically distinct variants of the same morpheme. In English the concept of plural can be realized in several different ways: -s (cat/cats), -z (dog/dogs [dogz]), -es (dish/dishes), -en (ox/oxen), -Ø (sheep/ sheep), or a vowel change in the stem (foot/feet).
ROOT , STEM AND COMPOUND The root of a word is the smallest unit – and as such is a morpheme – with any semantic content. A stem is the base for an inflected word form. Ex: HAIR – HAIRS root stem Ex: unhappiness stem A compound inclued at leats two roots. Ex: Horse + Hair = Horsehair
ROOT , STEM AND COMPOUND Semitic languages tend to consist of a root of only three consonants, which, through different vowel modifications, are formed into stems that then take the various inflectional markers for person and number. Gdr ’to enclose’ Gadar ‘enclosed’ Past Tense Gadar+ti ‘I enclosed’ 1 SG Gadar+ta ‘you enclosed’ 2 SG Goder ‘enclose’ Present Tense
LEXEMIC INFORMATION The root and stem carry lexemic information, i. e. the basic semantic information of the word. Ex: works worked working is WORK root stem root Ex: horsehair and horsehairs is HORSEHAIR root stem root
AFFIXES Affixes can be derivational or inflectional. Derivational affixes are those that create new words, for example un- and -ness in unhappiness or -ly in beautifully. Inflectional affixes are those which carry grammatical information, such as -s ‘plural’ or -ed ‘past tense’.
AFFIXES There are four types of affixes; 1. Prefix: It attaches itself to the beginning of a host word. un-happy , dis-honest , ir-regular etc.
AFFIXES 2. Suffix : It attaches to the end of the host word. happy-ness these are examples for derivational suffixes. construct-tion Watch-ed these are examples for inflectional suffixes Cat-s
AFFIXES 3. Infix: It is an affix that is inserted right into a root. (Lieber, 2009: 76). Ex: In Indonesia Leti language; (derivational) kakri ‘to cry’ / kniakri (k-ni-akri) ‘act of crying’ Ex: In Philippines Maranao language; (inflectional) ‘’-i-’’ marks past tense: tabasan ‘slash’ tiabasan (t-i-abasan) ‘slashed’
AFFIXES 4. Circumfix: We can speak of a circumfix when at least two types of affixation have to occur at the beginning and at the end of the host at the same time. Ex: In German (inflectional) lieben ‘to love’ (stem lieb-) geliebt (ge-lieb-t) ‘(had) loved’. Ex: Indonesian (Austronesian(Malayic)) (derivational) bebas ‘free’ kebebasan (ke-bebas-an) ‘freedom’
AFFIXES Parafixes: where the two affixes that have to occur at the same time do not necessarily attach at the beginning and end of the host word. Ex: In Indonesia Leti language (derivational) natu ‘to send’ iniatu (i-n-i-atu) ‘(the) act of sending’
CLITICS § Clitics are small grammatical elements that cannot occur independently and therefore cannot really be called free morphemes. But they are not exactly like affixes either. (Lieber , 2009: 150). Ex: The dog will bark → The dog’ll bark. NP What is going on ? → What’s going on ?
CLITICS § Just as affixes may attach at different places on (or in or around) their host, so clitics may attach at different places ; 1. Enclitic attaches at the end of the host.
CLITICS 2. Proclitics attach at the begining of the host. Ex:
CLITICS 3. Mesoclitic attaches itself between the host and the inflectional affixes. Ex:
CLITICS 4. Endoclitic which places itself inside the root or stem. Ex:
THE END PREPARED BY HANDE ÖNENKÖPRÜLÜ EZGİ YILDIRIM ŞULE KAHRAMAN THANK YOU FOR LISTENING