- Slides: 36
MORPHOLOGY Ichwan Suyudi
• Inflectional morphemes: vary (or "inflect") the form of words in order to express grammatical features, such as singular/plural or past/present tense. Thus Boy and boys, for example, are two different forms of the "same" word; the choice between them, singular vs. plural, is a matter of grammar and thus the business of inflectional morphology. (Crystal, p. 90. )
• Derivational morphemes makes new words from old ones (Crystal, p. 90. ) Thus creation is formed from create , but they are two separate words.
INFLECTIONAL VS. DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES Derivational morphemes generally: 1) Change the part of speech or the basic meaning of a word. Thus -ment added to a verb forms a noun (judg -ment). re-activate means "activate again. " 2) Are not required by syntactic relations outside the word. Thus un-kind combines un- and kind into a single new word, but has no particular syntactic connections outside the word -- we can say he is unkind or he is kind or they are unkind or they are kind, depending on what we mean.
INFLECTIONAL VS. DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY Derivational morphemes generally: 3) Are often not productive -- derivational morphemes can be selective about what they'll combine with, and may also have erratic effects on meaning. Thus the suffix -hood occurs with just a few nouns such as brother, neighbor, and knight, but not with most others. e. g. , *friendhood, *daughterhood, or *candlehood. Furthermore "brotherhood" can mean "the state or relationship of being brothers, " but "neighborhood" cannot mean "the state or relationship of being neighbors. " 4) Typically occur between the stem and any inflectional affixes. Thus in governments, -ment, a derivational suffix, precedes -s, an inflectional suffix. 5) In English, may appear either as prefixes or suffixes: prearrange, arrange-ment.
MORPHEMES Inflectional Morphemes generally: 1) Do not change basic meaning or part of speech, e. g. , bigg-er, bigg-est are all adjectives. 2) Express grammatically-required features or indicate relations between different words in the sentence. Thus in Lee love-s Kim: -s marks the 3 rd person singular present form of the verb, and also relates it to the 3 rd singular subject Lee.
MORPHEMES Inflectional Morphemes generally: 3) Are productive. Inflectional morphemes typically combine freely with all members of some large class of morphemes, with predictable effects on usage/meaning. Thus the plural morpheme can be combined with nearly any noun, usually in the same form, and usually with the same effect on meaning. 4) Occur outside any derivational morphemes. Thus in ration-al-iz-ation-s the final -s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word, outside the derivational morphemes -al, -iz, -ation. 5) In English, are suffixes only.
Larry Horn (1988) points out that the verbs that permit prefixation with un- are those that effect a change in state in some objects Adjective Un lock able Adjective Verb Un lock able the sense derived from the suffix -able combining with the verb lock to form an adjective lockable and then the adjective combining with the prefix un- to form a new adjective unlockable the sense derived from the prefix un- attaching to the verb lock to form a new verb unlock and then combining with the suffix -able to form an adjective unlockable
MORPHEMES Based on the speaker, or the speakers, the variety of languages are distinguished: 1. Regional Variety The dialect is a language variant caused by regional differences. Dialek dibedakan berdasarkan kosa kata, tata bahasa, dan pengucapan. 2. Personal Variety Idiolect is caused by a variant of the language as a habit or a typical speaking to someone. Idiolect is characteristic linguistic of someone.
3. Social Variety or sociolect Sociolect is a variant of the language that are caused by different social groups within the community, such as the group of intellectuals, businessmen, officials, youth, parents, and others.
Dialek bahasa Inggris Amerika dan bahasa Inggris British <==> American Football <==> Soccer Biscuit <==> Cookie Toilet <==> Rest room Shop <==> Store Dialek bahasa Jepang Kantou dan Dialek bahasa Jepang Kansai. Bahasa Jepang Kantou: acchi (panas), sammi (dingin). Bahasa Jepang Kansai: atsui (panas), samui (dingin).
MORPHEMES Morphemes also have other names, such as ‘affixes’, ‘stems’ and ‘roots’. An affix is a ‘morpheme that only occurs when attached to some other morpheme or morphemes such as a root or stem’ (Katamba & Stonham, 2006, pp. 44 -45).
MORPHEMES Affixes are generally divided into prefixes and suffixes. The stem is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional affixes have been added (Katamba & Stonham, 2006, p. 46). A root is the ‘irreducible core of the word’ (Katamba & Stonham, 2006, p. 46).
NEUROLINGUISTICS Afasia adalah gangguan fungsi bahasa yang disebapkan cedera atau penyakit pusat otak. Dalam hal ini pasien menunjukkan gangguan dalam memproduksi dan atau memahami bahasa. Ini termasuk gangguan kemapuan membaca dan menulis dengan baik, demikian juga bercakap, mendengar berhitung, menyimpulkan dan pemahaman terhadap sikap tubuh.
NEUROLINGUISTICS • Disleksia merupakan kelainan dengan dasar kelainan neurobiologis dan ditandai dengan kesulitan dalam mengenali kata dengan tepat atau akurat dalam pengejaan dalam kemampuan mengode simbol. Terdapat dua macam disleksia, yaitu developmental dyslexia dan acquired dyslexia.
Location of Bekasi
RESEARCH METHOD • This paper is a preliminary study for the field research that will be carried out in December 2012. • The study was a descriptive study constructively, to bring out a brief guide of how to communicate in foreign language, that is English, that can be used by SMEs for overseas marketing activities
Result dan Discussion In practice, there are many situations in which SMEs miss the opportunity to get buyers from other countries because they find difficulties to communicate with them in English. So, this will cause constraints to market the products to the global market
1 First, when SMEs join a trade exhibition Some basic communication skills need to be trained to them, such as : • Welcome to our outlet. . . please come in and … What can I do for you Sir/Madame? • We have / provide products such as. . • Which products do you like. . . • Please have a look on this …. . • Excuse me, this is our brochures… • We give special discount for you. . . • Can we have your business card Sir/Madame …. • Can we have your email address Sir/Madame …. • See you … and thank you for visiting our outlet Sir/Madame ….
2 Secondly, in the marketing activities, when SMEs got a call from potential buyers from other countries Some basic communication skills need to be trained to them, such as : • Hello, this is SMEs…. . good morning/afternoon/evening • This is …… who is on the line? • What can I do for you Sir/Madame? • Could you please repeat your phone number again? • We will send you our offer as soon as possible • Thank you for calling. . .
3 Language barrier may occur when SMEs receive letters or emails from prospective buyers from other countries • SMEs can actually utilize a good translation software application to translate letters/emails. • In the global era, the mastery of technology is also a must.
Conclusion and Suggestion • Although they have good export potentials, SMEs still have some problems • One of the efforts to solve the SME’s problems in exporting the products can be solved by improving the language skills of the marketing staffs, particularly in communication skills.
Conclusion and Suggestion • In the future, this effort needs support from all parties, especially the government and higher education institutions to facilitate the SMEs to improve their communication skills in foreign languages, so that SMEs can access foreign markets easily. Facilities, especially in terms of mentoring and training are needed by SMEs.
CONCLUSION • Creating modules: focus on the communication skills, and cultural-related materials that emphasizing on practices. Modules are applicable in class and multimedia language laboratory. • Providing teachers, facilitators that will help SMEs staffs to practice communicate in English (utilizing modules that will be created).