Mood Disorders Biological explanations ww psychlotron or Genetics

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Mood Disorders • Biological explanations ww. psychlotron. or – Genetics – Neurochemical abnormalities

Mood Disorders • Biological explanations ww. psychlotron. or – Genetics – Neurochemical abnormalities

Mood Disorders – Genetic • Zubenko et al (2001) – Family history – 50%

Mood Disorders – Genetic • Zubenko et al (2001) – Family history – 50% of FD relatives, 25% of SD relatives also had mood disorder – Relatives had increased risk of suicide & liver disease – MZ 46%, DZ 20% – MZ concordances substantially inflated in more serious cases ww. psychlotron. or • Mc. Guffin et al (1996)

 • Depression tends to run in families • The closer the relationship with

• Depression tends to run in families • The closer the relationship with a sufferer, the more likely a person will have a mood disorder • Genetic evidence is strongest for most severe forms of the disorder • Concordance rates also indicate a substantial environmental contribution ww. psychlotron. or Mood Disorders – Genetic

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical ww. psychlotron. or • Abnormality in neurochemicals • Too much

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical ww. psychlotron. or • Abnormality in neurochemicals • Too much or too little of some chemicals e. g. serotonin affects the functioning of the brain – this might have an effect on emotion regulation

ww. psychlotron. or Mood Disorders - Neurochemical

ww. psychlotron. or Mood Disorders - Neurochemical

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical • Noradrenanaline (NA) – Too little leads to depression, too

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical • Noradrenanaline (NA) – Too little leads to depression, too much to mania (catecholamine hypothesis) • Serotonin (5 -HT) • Dopamine (DA) – Involved in reinforcement, so too little results in anhedonia (dopamine hypothesis) ww. psychlotron. or – Regulates NA activity, so too little allows abnormal fluctuations in NA (permissive amine hypothesis)

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical • Some evidence (but not all) suggests that mood disorder

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical • Some evidence (but not all) suggests that mood disorder patients have abnormal levels of NA & 5 -HT ww. psychlotron. or – Might be sensitivity to neurotransmitters that matters, not raw levels in brain – Interactions between neurotransmitters are poorly understood – likely to be complex – Problems with direction of causality

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical • Drugs that alter brain levels of NA & 5

Mood Disorders - Neurochemical • Drugs that alter brain levels of NA & 5 HT are effective in treating depression in about 60% of cases ww. psychlotron. or – So what about the non-responsive patients? – Relapse when drugs are discontinued? – Treatment-aetiology fallacy?