Monera e g Bacteria Bacteria in pond water

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Monera e. g. Bacteria

Monera e. g. Bacteria

Bacteria in pond water

Bacteria in pond water

Bacteria n n n Bacteria belong to the kingdom Monera. They are unicellular organisms

Bacteria n n n Bacteria belong to the kingdom Monera. They are unicellular organisms Also known as prokaryotes as they have no membrane bound nucleus or membrane bound cell organelles They are classified according to three shapes 1. 2. 3. Spherical (cocci) Rod (bacillus) Spiral (spirillum)

Bacterial Shapes

Bacterial Shapes

Spherical (cocci) n E. g. Staphoolococcus aureus n Causes pneumonia

Spherical (cocci) n E. g. Staphoolococcus aureus n Causes pneumonia

Rod (bacillus) n E. g. Bacillus anthracis n Cause of anthrax n Escherichia coli

Rod (bacillus) n E. g. Bacillus anthracis n Cause of anthrax n Escherichia coli (E. coli) n Live in human gut

Spirillum (spiral) n E. g. Treponema pallidum n Causes syphilis

Spirillum (spiral) n E. g. Treponema pallidum n Causes syphilis

Bacterial size

Bacterial size

Bacterial Structure

Bacterial Structure

Bacterial Structure Cell wall flagella cytoplasmid capsule Cell Strand of DNA membrane

Bacterial Structure Cell wall flagella cytoplasmid capsule Cell Strand of DNA membrane

Cell Parts & Function n Cell wall - shape & structure n Cytoplasm -

Cell Parts & Function n Cell wall - shape & structure n Cytoplasm - contains ribosomes and storage n n granules but no mitochondria or chloroplasts Nuclear material -single chromosome of DNA Capsule* - protection Flagella* - movement Plasmid* -circular piece of DNA containing few genes for drug resistance * Sometimes present.

Bacterial Reproduction

Bacterial Reproduction

Bacterial reproduction • Bacteria reproduce asexually • The method used by a bacteria to

Bacterial reproduction • Bacteria reproduce asexually • The method used by a bacteria to reproduce is called Binary Fission

Binary Fission The chromosome attaches to the plasma membrane and the DNA is replicated

Binary Fission The chromosome attaches to the plasma membrane and the DNA is replicated Cell wall Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Chromosome

Binary Fission The cell elongates and the two chromosomes separate

Binary Fission The cell elongates and the two chromosomes separate

Binary Fission The cell wall grows to divide the cell in two

Binary Fission The cell wall grows to divide the cell in two

Binary Fission Two identical daughter cells are formed

Binary Fission Two identical daughter cells are formed

Bacterial Reproduction • Bacteria reproduce asexually - their offspring are genetically identical • As

Bacterial Reproduction • Bacteria reproduce asexually - their offspring are genetically identical • As there is little recombination of genetic material in this method of reproduction one would expect that bacteria would be slow to evolve • Bacteria has a very short lifecycle (some can reproduce every 20 minutes). • New mutations can spread very quickly • This is how bacteria evolve resistance to new antibiotics

Endospore formation n Some bacteria can withstand unfavourable conditions by producing endospores

Endospore formation n Some bacteria can withstand unfavourable conditions by producing endospores

Endospore formation These are formed when the bacterial chromosome replicates

Endospore formation These are formed when the bacterial chromosome replicates

Endospore formation The parent cell then breaks down and the endospore remains dormant

Endospore formation The parent cell then breaks down and the endospore remains dormant

Endospore formation n One of the new strands becomes enclosed in a tough-walled capsule

Endospore formation n One of the new strands becomes enclosed in a tough-walled capsule called an endospore Endospore n The parent cell then breaks down and the endospore remains dormant

Endospore formation n When conditions are favourable the spores absorb water, break their walls

Endospore formation n When conditions are favourable the spores absorb water, break their walls and reproduce by binary fission

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n http: //highered. mcgraw- hill. com/classware/ala. do? isbn=0072464631& alaid=ala_661344

Growth curve of bacteria

Growth curve of bacteria

Bacterial Nutrition

Bacterial Nutrition

Autotrophic and Heterotrophic n Autotrophic – organisms which make their own food n Heterotrophic

Autotrophic and Heterotrophic n Autotrophic – organisms which make their own food n Heterotrophic – organisms which take in food made by other organisms

Autotrophic Bacteria Photosynthetic bacteria n Use light energy to make food n E. g.

Autotrophic Bacteria Photosynthetic bacteria n Use light energy to make food n E. g. purple sulphur bacteria

Autotrophic Bacteria Chemosynthetic bacteria n Use energy from chemical reactions to make food n

Autotrophic Bacteria Chemosynthetic bacteria n Use energy from chemical reactions to make food n E. g. Nitrifying bacteria that convert ammonia to nitrates in the nitrogen cycle

Heterotrophic Bacteria Saprophytic Bacteria n Live off dead organic matter n E. g. bacteria

Heterotrophic Bacteria Saprophytic Bacteria n Live off dead organic matter n E. g. bacteria of decay in the soil

Heterotrophic Bacteria Parasitic Bacteria n Take food from live host n Some cause diseases

Heterotrophic Bacteria Parasitic Bacteria n Take food from live host n Some cause diseases n E. g. Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax

Bacterial Nutrition Heterotrophic (Take in food) Saprophytic e. g. bacteria of decay Parasitic e.

Bacterial Nutrition Heterotrophic (Take in food) Saprophytic e. g. bacteria of decay Parasitic e. g. Streptococci Autotrophic (make food) Photosynthetic e. g. Purple sulphur bacteria Chemosynthetic e. g. Nitrifying bacteria