Monday October 21 st Biology is the only

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Monday, October 21 st: Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the

Monday, October 21 st: Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division… AP Biology 2007 -2008

The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division AP Biology 2007 -2008

The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division AP Biology 2007 -2008

Where it all began… You started as a cell smaller than a period at

Where it all began… You started as a cell smaller than a period at the end of a sentence… AP Biology

And now look at you… AP Biology How did you get from there to

And now look at you… AP Biology How did you get from there to here?

Getting from there to here… § Function of cell division making new cells u

Getting from there to here… § Function of cell division making new cells u continuity of life u § asexual reproduction w unicellular organisms § growth § repair & renew § Cell cycle u AP Biology life of a cell from origin to division into 2 new daughter cells amoeba

Making new cells § Nucleus chromosomes u DNA u § Cytoskeleton u centrioles §

Making new cells § Nucleus chromosomes u DNA u § Cytoskeleton u centrioles § in animals u AP Biology microtubule spindle fibers

Nucleus DNA § Function chromosome protects DNA Structure histone protein u § u nuclear

Nucleus DNA § Function chromosome protects DNA Structure histone protein u § u nuclear envelope § double membrane § membrane fused in spots to create pores w allows large macromolecules to pass through nuclear pores AP Biology What kind of molecules need to pass through? nuclear pore nucleolus nuclear envelope

AP Biology

AP Biology

Cytoskeleton § Function u structural support § maintains shape of cell § provides anchorage

Cytoskeleton § Function u structural support § maintains shape of cell § provides anchorage for organelles w protein fibers n u microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules motility § cell locomotion § cilia, flagella, etc. u regulation § organizes structures & activities of cell AP Biology

Cytoskeleton § actin § microtubule § nuclei AP Biology

Cytoskeleton § actin § microtubule § nuclei AP Biology

Centrioles § Cell division u in animal cells, pair of centrioles organize microtubules §

Centrioles § Cell division u in animal cells, pair of centrioles organize microtubules § spindle fibers u AP Biology guide chromosomes in mitosis

End of the Tour AP Biology

End of the Tour AP Biology

Getting the right stuff § What is passed on to daughter cells? u exact

Getting the right stuff § What is passed on to daughter cells? u exact copy of genetic material = DNA § mitosis u division of organelles & cytoplasm § cytokinesis chromosomes (stained orange) in kangaroo rat epithelial cell AP Biology notice cytoskeleton fibers

Overview of mitosis interphase prophase I. P. M. A. T. (pro-metaphase) cytokinesis AP Biology

Overview of mitosis interphase prophase I. P. M. A. T. (pro-metaphase) cytokinesis AP Biology metaphase anaphase telophase

Interphase § 90% of cell life cycle u cell doing its “everyday job” §

Interphase § 90% of cell life cycle u cell doing its “everyday job” § produce RNA, synthesize proteins/enzymes u AP Biology prepares for duplication if triggered

Cell cycle § Cell has a “life cycle” cell is formed from a mitotic

Cell cycle § Cell has a “life cycle” cell is formed from a mitotic division cell grows & matures to divide again G 1, S, G 2, M epithelial cells, blood cells, stem cells AP Biology cell grows & matures to never divide again liver cells G 1 G 0 brain / nerve cells muscle cells

Interphase § Divided into 3 phases: u l to a n sig ivide u

Interphase § Divided into 3 phases: u l to a n sig ivide u d u G 1 = 1 st Gap § cell doing its “everyday job” § cell grows S = DNA Synthesis § copies chromosomes G 2 = 2 nd Gap § prepares for division § cell grows (more) § produces organelles, proteins, membranes AP Biology G 0

Interphase § Nucleus well-defined u DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers § Prepares

Interphase § Nucleus well-defined u DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers § Prepares for mitosis u replicates chromosome § DNA & proteins u AP Biology produces proteins & organelles

Copying / Replicating DNA § Synthesis phase of Interphase dividing cell replicates DNA u

Copying / Replicating DNA § Synthesis phase of Interphase dividing cell replicates DNA u must separate DNA copies correctly to 2 daughter cells u § human cell duplicates ~3 meters DNA § each daughter cell gets complete identical copy § error rate = ~1 per 100 million bases w 3 billion base pairs in mammalian genome w ~30 errors per cell cycle n mutations (to somatic cells) AP Biology

ACTGGTCAGGCAATGTC Organizing DNA § DNA is organized in chromosomes double helix DNA molecule u

ACTGGTCAGGCAATGTC Organizing DNA § DNA is organized in chromosomes double helix DNA molecule u wrapped around histone proteins histones u § like thread on spools u DNA-protein complex = chromatin § organized into long thin fiber u condensed further during mitosis double stranded chromosome AP Biology duplicated mitotic chromosome

Friday, October 5 th: Potato Core Osmosis-Results Solution DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3

Friday, October 5 th: Potato Core Osmosis-Results Solution DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 . 0 M . 23 g . 22 g . 13 g . 4 M . 27 g . 28 g . 21 g . 6 M . 16 g . 25 g 1. 0 M . 14 g . 27 g . 24 g What does this mean about osmosis and sucrose solutions? What do you believe occurred between days 2 and 3? AP Biology

Copying DNA & packaging it… § After DNA duplication, chromatin condenses u coiling &

Copying DNA & packaging it… § After DNA duplication, chromatin condenses u coiling & folding to make a smaller package mitotic chromosome DNA chromatin AP Biology

double-stranded mitotic human chromosomes AP Biology

double-stranded mitotic human chromosomes AP Biology

Mitotic Chromosome § Duplicated chromosome 2 sister chromatids u narrow at centromeres u contain

Mitotic Chromosome § Duplicated chromosome 2 sister chromatids u narrow at centromeres u contain identical copies of original DNA u homologous chromosomes single-stranded AP Biology sister chromatids double-stranded homologous = “same information”

Mitosis § Dividing cell’s DNA between 2 daughter nuclei u “dance of the chromosomes”

Mitosis § Dividing cell’s DNA between 2 daughter nuclei u “dance of the chromosomes” § 4 phases prophase u metaphase u anaphase u telophase u AP Biology

Prophase § Chromatin condenses u visible chromosomes § chromatids § Centrioles move to opposite

Prophase § Chromatin condenses u visible chromosomes § chromatids § Centrioles move to opposite poles of cell u animal cell § Protein fibers cross cell to form mitotic spindle u microtubules § actin, myosin u coordinates movement of chromosomes § Nucleolus disappears § Nuclear membrane breaks down AP Biology

Transition to Metaphase § Prometaphase u spindle fibers attach to centromeres § creating kinetochores

Transition to Metaphase § Prometaphase u spindle fibers attach to centromeres § creating kinetochores u microtubules attach at kinetochores § connect centromeres to centrioles u AP Biology chromosomes begin moving

Metaphase § Chromosomes align along middle of cell u metaphase plate § meta =

Metaphase § Chromosomes align along middle of cell u metaphase plate § meta = middle spindle fibers coordinate movement u helps to ensure chromosomes separate properly u § so each new nucleus receives only 1 copy of each chromosome AP Biology

AP Biology

AP Biology

Anaphase § Sister chromatids separate at kinetochores move to opposite poles u pulled at

Anaphase § Sister chromatids separate at kinetochores move to opposite poles u pulled at centromeres u pulled by motor proteins “walking”along microtubules u § actin, myosin § increased production of ATP by mitochondria § Poles move farther apart u AP Biology polar microtubules lengthen

Separation of chromatids § In anaphase, proteins holding together sister chromatids are inactivated u

Separation of chromatids § In anaphase, proteins holding together sister chromatids are inactivated u separate to become individual chromosomes 1 chromosome 2 chromatids AP Biology double-stranded 2 chromosomes single-stranded

Chromosome movement § Kinetochores use motor proteins that “walk” chromosome along attached microtubule u

Chromosome movement § Kinetochores use motor proteins that “walk” chromosome along attached microtubule u AP Biology microtubule shortens by dismantling at kinetochore (chromosome) end

Telophase § Chromosomes arrive at opposite poles daughter nuclei form u nucleoli form u

Telophase § Chromosomes arrive at opposite poles daughter nuclei form u nucleoli form u chromosomes disperse u § no longer visible under light microscope § Spindle fibers disperse § Cytokinesis begins u AP Biology cell division

Cytokinesis § Animals u constriction belt of actin microfilaments around equator of cell §

Cytokinesis § Animals u constriction belt of actin microfilaments around equator of cell § cleavage furrow forms § splits cell in two § like tightening a draw string AP Biology

Cytokinesis in Animals (play Cells Alive movies here) AP Biology (play Thinkwell movies here)

Cytokinesis in Animals (play Cells Alive movies here) AP Biology (play Thinkwell movies here)

Mitosis in whitefish blastula AP Biology

Mitosis in whitefish blastula AP Biology

Mitosis in animal cells AP Biology

Mitosis in animal cells AP Biology

Cytokinesis in Plants § Plants u cell plate forms § vesicles line up at

Cytokinesis in Plants § Plants u cell plate forms § vesicles line up at equator w derived from Golgi § vesicles fuse to form 2 cell membranes u AP Biology new cell wall laid down between membranes § new cell wall fuses with existing cell wall

Cytokinesis in plant cell AP Biology

Cytokinesis in plant cell AP Biology

Mitosis in plant cell AP Biology

Mitosis in plant cell AP Biology

onion root tip AP Biology

onion root tip AP Biology

Monday, October 8 th: Good morning! Please pick up a MITOSIS lab off the

Monday, October 8 th: Good morning! Please pick up a MITOSIS lab off the front table. Read the BACKGROUND section and be able to answer some questions. PRE-LAB today AP Biology

Evolution of mitosis § Mitosis in chromosome: double-stranded replication of DNA eukaryotes likely evolved

Evolution of mitosis § Mitosis in chromosome: double-stranded replication of DNA eukaryotes likely evolved from binary fission in bacteria single circular chromosome u no membranebound organelles u AP Biology Origin of replication elongation of cell ring of proteins cell pinches in two

Evolution of mitosis § A possible progression of mechanisms intermediate between binary fission &

Evolution of mitosis § A possible progression of mechanisms intermediate between binary fission & mitosis seen in modern organisms prokaryotes (bacteria) protists dinoflagellates protists diatoms eukaryotes yeast eukaryotes animals AP Biology

Dinoflagellates § algae “red tide” u bioluminescence u AP Biology

Dinoflagellates § algae “red tide” u bioluminescence u AP Biology

Diatoms § microscopic algae marine u freshwater u AP Biology

Diatoms § microscopic algae marine u freshwater u AP Biology

Any Questions? ? AP Biology 2007 -2008

Any Questions? ? AP Biology 2007 -2008

EXTRA SLIDES to be used for enrichment, but usually do not have time for.

EXTRA SLIDES to be used for enrichment, but usually do not have time for. AP Biology 2007 -2008

Control of Cell Cycle AP Biology

Control of Cell Cycle AP Biology

Kinetochore § Each chromatid has own kinetochore proteins u AP Biology microtubules attach to

Kinetochore § Each chromatid has own kinetochore proteins u AP Biology microtubules attach to kinetochore proteins

Chromosome structure chromatin loop scaffold protein 30 rosettes of chromatin loops chromosome AP Biology

Chromosome structure chromatin loop scaffold protein 30 rosettes of chromatin loops chromosome AP Biology nm DNA nucleosome histone DNA double helix

M metaphase prophase Cell Division cycle C G 2 § Phases of a dividing

M metaphase prophase Cell Division cycle C G 2 § Phases of a dividing cell’s life u interphase § § u AP Biology anaphase telophase S interphase (G 1, S, G 2 phases) mitosis (M) cytokinesis (C) G 1 cell grows replicates chromosomes produces new organelles, enzymes, membranes… G 1, S, G 2 mitotic phase § cell separates & divides chromosomes w mitosis § cell divides cytoplasm & organelles w cytokinesis

Slide Storage for slides that are used in print version of file vs. presentation

Slide Storage for slides that are used in print version of file vs. presentation mode AP Biology 2007 -2008

And now look at you… AP Biology How did you get from there to

And now look at you… AP Biology How did you get from there to here?

And now look at you… AP Biology How did you get from there to

And now look at you… AP Biology How did you get from there to here?

Overview of mitosis interphase prophase I. P. M. A. T. (pro-metaphase) cytokinesis AP Biology

Overview of mitosis interphase prophase I. P. M. A. T. (pro-metaphase) cytokinesis AP Biology metaphase anaphase telophase