- Slides: 36
Module 4 Teaching Methods: Introduction TED 367 Methods in Sec. Ed.
Module 4 Within the framework of developmentally appropriate practice, use curriculum and an understanding of the developmental levels of students to implement units and lessons for students, including atypical learners, in secondary level programs.
Reading • Read the following in the Duplass textbook: – Unit 5 (topics 21 -25) Instructional Approaches – Unit 6 (topics 26 -36) Methods
Outline of Module 4 • Mod 4 -A: Teaching Methods: Introduction • Mod 4 -B: Rethinking teacher-centered instructional methods. • Mod 4 -C: Student-centered instructional methods. • Mod 4 -D: Instructional strategies to increase learning.
Mod 4 -A Outline 1. Direct vs. Indirect Instruction 2. Increasing Critical Thinking and Reasoning 3. Concept Formation
Direct vs. Indirect Instruction
Direct vs. Indirect Instruction • Direct Teaching (direct instruction, explicit instruction, target teaching, whole-class instruction, teacher-led instruction, lecture, teacher-centered instruction) • The teacher tends to be at the center of the instruction dictating its pace with a high degree of teacher talk. • Indirect Teaching (indirect OR studentcentered instruction) • The teacher creates an instructional sequence whereby students work more independently—as individuals, in pairs, or in groups—to construct knowledge rather than hear about it.
Direct vs. Indirect Instruction In direct instruction, the teacher is at the center of instruction. In indirect instruction, the teacher is a facilitator who helps learner construct knowledge.
Direct vs. Indirect Instruction
Direct Instruction Advantages: • Cover much content in a short span of time. • Teacher is in control of content and time. • Student achievement is predictable and manageable. Disadvantages: • Student motivation is extrinsic. • Little learner control over content and pacing. • Creative and divergent thinking is limited. • Student self-esteem is not advanced.
Best Practices for Direct Instruction • Open lessons by reviewing prerequisite knowledge. • Use an overview or analogy to create a context. • Provide a short statement of goals. • Present new material in small steps, with student practice after each step. • Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations. • Ask a large number of questions. • Check for understanding. • Guide students during practice segments of the Instructional Sequence. • Provide systematic, immediate feedback and corrections. • Monitor students during tasks. • Involve all students. • Maintain a brisk pace. • Teach skills to the point of overlearning. • Praise and repeat student answers.
Direct Instruction • Direct Instruction is most effective when: 1. Content is straightforward and well-defined. • Example: Process for balancing equations. 2. Content needs to be mastered by all students. 3. Content would be difficult for students to master in indirect instruction. 4. Goal is to integrate facts, concepts, generalizations, and ideas of an organized body of knowledge. 5. Goal is to introduce prerequisite knowledge to set up an indirect instruction approach to follow. When a high degree of active learning has been explicitly planned, research shows that direct instruction is one of the most effective and efficient forms of teaching.
Indirect Instruction is effective because: • Appeals to different students’ sensibilities. • Students should learn how to learn in many different ways. • Capitalizes on social interactions in ways that whole-class instruction cannot. • If planned well, students are required to not only learn the knowledge, but also to initiate and manage their own learning. • Burden of learning is strategically shifted to the student. Research on indirect instruction indicates that it too is successful when it is employed effectively.
Best Practices for Indirect Instruction • Carefully plan the transition from direct to indirect instruction. • Carefully define the tasks. • Monitor the students’ progress. • Establish clear time limits and outcomes. • Ensure equitable participation. • Establish student-to-student communication rules for group activities.
Indirect Instruction • Direct instruction can fail because of student passivity and boredom. • Indirect instruction may fail because the teacher does not: – Define the tasks. – Provide adequate structure and monitoring. – Hold students accountable.
Examples of Direct and Indirect Instruction • Direct Instruction. The teacher lectures using a transparency with columns for humans and animals, sequentially identifying a critical attribute of each. The teacher asks students to take notes.
Examples of Direct and Indirect Instruction • Indirect Instruction. The teacher leads a discussion using a table on the chalkboard with columns for humans and animals, asking students to hypothesis the unique attributes of each and asking follow-up questions to probe individual students’ thinking as they offer ideas. • The teacher then adds correct conceptions, offers modifications or solicits them from students, and tactfully rejects misconceptions while completing the columns and rows on the chalkboard.
Examples of Direct and Indirect Instruction • Indirect Instruction. Teacher gives students a Venn diagram, puts them in groups, and asks them to hypothesize which attributes animals and humans have in common and which they do not have in common. • Students are then asked as a group to offer their ideas and rationale, while the teacher serves as a facilitator, probing and suggesting alternatives.
Indirect Instructional Approach: Attributes of Islands • What are the attributes of an Island? • An Island is: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Critical Attributes: Islands • What are the critical attributes of an Island? • An Island is: 1. Body of land 2. Small 3. Surrounded by water
Debriefing: Non-Critical Attributes: Islands Florida • Non-critical Attributes – – Sand Palm trees Hot Alligators Alaska • Non-critical Attributes – – Ice Cold Rocks Seals
Direct Instruction: Context Conceptualization Land Bodies Islands Peninsulas Continents Etc.
Direct Instruction: Compare & Contrast Conceptualization Island Peninsula Surrounded by water on all sides Land Surrounded by water on Three sides
What Should a Teacher Do? • To increase learning: – Become well skilled in use of direct and indirect methods. – Mix teacher-centered (direct) and studentcentered (indirect) methods. – Involve more active learning when using teacher-centered methods. – Vary methods often during instruction.
Increasing Critical Thinking and Reasoning
Critical Thinking • Critical thinking is the most common term used for analytical reasoning, thinking skills, problem solving, or higher mental processes. • The key to successfully promoting critical thinking is for you not to do the thinking for your students. Provide just enough information and structure to a lesson. Bloom’s Cognitive Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation are examples of critical thinking at high levels.
Critical Thinking • Collecting relevant information. • Sorting and analyzing information. • Drawing reasoned conclusions from information. • “Brainstorming” new ideas. • Solving problems. • Determining cause-andeffect relationships. • Evaluating options. • Planning and setting goals. • Monitoring progress. • Making decisions. • Reflecting on one’s own progress.
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning (Start with observation. ) 1. Show pictures of islands and peninsulas. Students analyze and categorize pictures based on patterns. (Islands grouped in one stack, peninsulas in another. ) 2. Students are asked to develop a hypothesis that would include definitions of stack X and stack Y, or their Critical Attributes. 3. Each group might present a definition, and the teacher would probe for their thinking by asking questions or showing more pictures. 4. A debriefing would include confirming the definitions, reinforcing that X is an island—a small body of land surrounded by water—and Y is a peninsula—a body of land surrounded by water on three sides. 5. Students would record the definitions.
Deductive Reasoning (Start with theory. ) 1. The teacher would write the definitions of island peninsula on the board. 2. Students would be given pictures and asked to apply the definition to the illustrations. 3. When they have placed the islands in one stack and the peninsulas in another stack, students would be expected to justify their decisions. 4. A debriefing would include reinforcing the concept. 5. Students would record the definitions.
Application • Direct instruction: Often a graphic image is used to depict for the students what knowledge is and how it should be organized. • Indirect instruction: Often the teacher has in mind the equivalent of the graphic image, but does not share it with students. Create an instructional sequence that leads students to conceptualize it. Examples
Concept Hierarchies superordinate subordinate coordinate Heads of Government President of USA Governor of Pennsylvania Mayor of Altoona Prime Minister of Great Britain
Indirect Instruction Activity: Create a Hierarchy Concept Organizer CONCEPTS CONNECTORS CONTINENTS Are at EARTH Divided into GULFS Includes ISLANDS Is made up of LAKES LAND AREAS OCEANS RIVERS WATER BODIES
Concept Map Earth Divided Into Land Bodies Water Bodies Made up of Includes Continents Islands Gulfs Lakes Oceans Rivers
Review: MODULE 4 Introduction • direct instruction: Rethinking teachercentered instructional methods. • indirect instruction: Student-centered instructional methods. • Instructional strategies to increase learning.