- Slides: 77
Module 3 – Nautical Science Unit 5 – Physical Science Chapter 23 – Sound and Sonar Section 2 – The Doppler Shift
What You Will Learn to Do Demonstrate an understanding of Physical Science
Objectives 1. Describe the Doppler shift 2. Explain the characteristics of sound in seawater 3. Describe sonar and its characteristics
Key Term Questions Slide Index Click any link below to go directly to polling that question. 1. Sonar instrument that uses echolocation to measure depths under water 2. Instrument used by fishermen to locate schools of fish beneath their boat 3. Change in the frequency with which waves from a given source reach an observer 4. Change between the highest and lowest frequencies heard Click here to return to this index.
Key Term Questions Slide Index Click any link below to go directly to polling that question. 5. Instrument, listen to sound transmitted through water 6. Transmission of underwater sound pulses, strike targets and return in the form of echoes 7. Receive-only mode of operation to receive noise transmitted 8. Device for detecting underwater sounds and transmitting them by radio Click here to return to this index.
A sonar instrument that uses echolocation to measure depths under water A. B. C. D. Fish finder Fathometer Sonar meter Hydrometer 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 1)
A type of instrument used by fishermen to locate schools of fish beneath their boat; the screen displays water depth, echoes returned from fish A. B. C. D. Fish finder Hdyrometer Fathometer Fish meter 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 2)
A change in the frequency with which waves (as sound or light) from a given source reach an observer when the source and the observer are in motion with respect to each other so that the frequency increases or decreases according to the speed at which the distance is decreasing or increasing A. B. C. D. Doppler evolution Doppler motion Doppler shift Doppler effect 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 3)
The change between the highest and lowest frequencies heard and the source frequency. It can be used to determine the speed and direction of motion of a sounds source, such as a submarine in the ocean A. B. C. D. Doppler transition Doppler evolution Doppler effect Doppler shift 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 4)
An instrument for listening to sound transmitted through water A. B. C. D. Hydroplane Hydrophone Hydrometer Hydrograph 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 5)
The transmission of underwater sound pulses that strike targets and return in the form of echoes A. B. C. D. Active sonar Sound emissions Aqua sonar Sound waves 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 6)
Receive-only mode of operation to receive noise transmitted or caused by targets A. B. C. D. Sonobuoy Passive sonar Echogram Sound emission 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 7)
A device equipped for detecting underwater sounds and transmitting them by radio A. B. C. D. Active sonar Passive sonar Sonobuoy Hydrophone 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: KT 8)
Key Terms Fathometer - A sonar instrument that uses echolocation to measure depths under water Fish finder - A type of fathometer used by fishermen to locate schools of fish beneath their boat; the fish-finder screen displays water depth, echoes returned from fish
Key Terms Doppler effect - A change in the frequency with which waves (as sound or light) from a given source reach an observer when the source and the observer are in motion with respect to each other so that the frequency increases or decreases according to the speed at which the distance is decreasing or increasing
Key Terms Doppler shift - The change between the highest and lowest frequencies heard and the source frequency is called the Doppler shift; it can be used to determine the speed and direction of motion of a sound’s source, such as a submarine in the ocean Hydrophone - An instrument for listening to sound transmitted through water
Key Terms Active sonar - The transmission of underwater sound pulses that strike targets and return in the form of echoes Passive sonar - Receive-only mode of operation to receive noise transmitted or caused by targets Sonobuoy - A buoy equipped for detecting underwater sounds and transmitting them by radio
Discuss and explain the Doppler Shift. 1. 2. 3. Note to Instructors: Click the Show/Hide Response Display Button
What is your current energy level? A. B. C. D. E. Very high - LETS DO THIS!!!!! High - I have more energy than usual. Moderate - I feel decent. Low – I’m dragging. Very low – I’m spent. 1 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 1)
Which of the following is the most important factor affecting the speed of sound in seawater? A. B. C. D. E. Temperature Distance Marine life Pressure Surface area 1 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 2)
The Doppler Shift You may have noticed the apparent change in frequency or pitch of a train whistle or automobile horn as the train or auto approaches, passes, and departs.
The Doppler Shift In fact, there is no change in the frequency emitted by the source. There is, however, a change in the frequency reaching the ear, because of the relative motion between the source and you.
The Doppler Shift As the train or auto approaches or moves closer, the effect is an increase in frequency caused by compression of the distance between waves. When the source is opposite you, you hear the same frequency as the whistle or horn puts out.
The Doppler Shift When the train or auto moves away, the effect is to increase the distance between waves, thus causing a decrease in the frequency reaching your ear.
The Doppler Shift
The Doppler Shift This phenomenon is known as the Doppler Effect, named for the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler (1803 – 1853)
The Doppler Shift The total change between the highest and lowest frequencies heard and the source frequency is called the Doppler shift.
The Doppler Shift The Doppler shift can be used to determine the speed and direction of motion of a sound's source, such as a submarine in the ocean. Shift Doppler shifts also occur with electromagnetic waves such as radio and light.
The Doppler Shift By analyzing the Doppler shift in light from a distant star, for instance, astronomers can determine its speed and distance from us. Radar detectors use the Doppler shift to determine the speed of baseballs and automobiles.
Sound in the Sea Since Navy ships and submarines operate in the sea, the characteristics of sound in seawater are of special interest to the Navy.
Sound in the Sea The speed of sound waves traveling through the water is affected by three conditions of seawater: • Temperature • Pressure, a function of depth • Salinity, or salt content
Sound in the Sea Temperature is by far the most important of the factors affecting the speed of sound in seawater.
Sound in the Sea Degree of Temperature Increase The speed of sound changes from 4 to 8 feet per second for every degree of temperature change.
Sound in the Sea The temperature of the sea varies from freezing in the polar seas to more than 85 °F in the tropics.
The speed of sound waves in water is affected by which of the following? (Input all that apply, then push the ENTER button. ) A. B. C. D. E. Temperature Distance Surface area Pressure Salt content 1 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 3)
When an object such as an airplane approaches you the frequency waves that reach your ear are closer together, resulting in a higher frequency. As the sound source, in this case the airplane, moves away the frequency waves are _____. A. more compressed B. further apart C. the same distance as the waves when the airplane was approaching D. the same distance as the waves at the source 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 4)
Sound in the Sea 0’ 450’ 60° Water Temperature 30° Temperature may decrease by more than 30° from the surface to a depth of 450 feet.
Sound in the Sea 85 °F S O U N D 45 °F Temperature changes in the sea have a great effect on the speed of sound in the seawater.
Sound in the Sea Effect of Pressure on Sound Travel in Water 0’ (14. 7 psi) Slower Sp e 33’ (29. 4 psi) ed o f S ou nd 66’ (44. 1 psi) Faster Pressure increases as depth increases, so the deeper a sound wave is, the faster it travels.
Sound in the Seawater has high mineral content or salinity.
Sound in the Sea Density Seawater = 64 lbs per cubic foot Freshwater = 62. 4 lbs per cubic foot The density of seawater (due to salt content) is about 64 pounds per cubic foot; that of fresh water is only about 62. 4 pounds per cubic foot.
Sound in the Sea High Salinity S O U N D Low Salinity The saltier the water, the greater its density, and hence the faster the speed of sound in it.
Sound in the Sea High Salinity (18 ppt) S O U N D Low Salinity(10 ppt) The speed of sound increases about 4 feet per second for each part-per-thousand increase in salinity.
Sound in the Sea Effect on Sound Travel in Water Temperature Salinity Pressure Salinity has a lesser effect than that of temperature, but greater than that of pressure.
Sonar SOund Navigation And Ranging The principal means of detecting and tracking submarines at sea is called SONAR.
Sonar The earliest sonar device, used in WW I, was a hydrophone lowered into the water to listen for submarines.
Sonar Three hydrophones could pinpoint the location of a submarine by triangulation. Hydrophone Triangulation Fix
Sonar Today's sophisticated sonar equipment can provide highly accurate ranges and bearings to submerged submarines.
Sonar Analysis of Doppler data provides accurate course and speed for a submarine.
Sonar information is normally presented visually on a CRT screen rather than by sound, as the early devices did.
By how many degrees may the water temperature decrease from the surface to a depth of 450 feet? (Input the correct number; then push the ENTER button. ) Note to Instructors: Click the Show/Hide Response Display Button (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 5)
The saltier the water, the greater its density, and hence the slower the speed of sound in it. A. B. C. D. Change "greater" to "lesser" Change "density" to "pressure" Change "slower" to "faster" It is correct as is. 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 6)
Sonar Sophisticated sonar equipment for use by helicopters and fixedwing aircraft have also been developed. Two basic modes of operation for sonar systems can be used to detect targets. They are • Active and • Passive
Sonar The returned echoes from active sonar indicate the range and bearing of the target. When seeking out submarines, ships usually employ the active (pinging) mode.
Sonar Active sonar is also used by submarines and ships to analyze shorelines, bottom characteristics, and ocean depths.
Sonar Although submarines can use active sonar, they rarely do to avoid revealing their position. Passive sonars do not transmit sound.
Sonar Passive sonars listen for sounds produced by the target to obtain accurate bearing and estimated range information.
Sonar Target detection is achieved at great ranges through the use of highly sensitive hydrophones.
Sonar The passive sonar mode is most often used by submarines, although surface ships also have the capability.
Sonar Submarines use passive sonar to analyze the noise of passing ships. Undersea Warfare (USW) aircraft, helicopters, and shore stations also use passive sonar.
Sonar USS Cole (DDG 67) Some sonar systems are mounted in domes below the ship’s bow.
Sonar Passive sonar systems, called a towed array, are used on USW surface ships and submarines. A towed array consists of a semibuoyant tube several thousand feet or more long fitted with numerous hydrophones.
Sonar The array is unreeled and towed behind the ship.
Sonar A towed array is extremely sensitive and can pick up noise generated by submarines operating many miles away. Receive Array Source Array
Sonar Most ships also have a fathometer installed to determine water depth under the hull. A sound pulse is transmitted by the fathometer toward the bottom, and its echo is received back.
Sonar The fathometer is normally used as a navigational aid, particularly when entering shallow water. A fathometer is also used regularly in oceanographic research to determine the contour of the sea bottom.
Sonar Most Navy ships keep their fathometer on continuously to have an accurate recording of the water depths on their course.
Sonar The fathometer data can be displayed numerically or automatically recorded on paper.
Sonar Dipping Sonar and Sonobuoys Sonar equipment called dipping sonar can be used by helicopters to detect submerged submarines.
Sonar The helicopter can hover and lower a hydrophone or pinging transducer into the sea to a depth of about 400 feet. Transducer
Sonar The sonar searches a 360° area. After searching, the helicopter hauls in the cable and goes to another spot quickly. When a submarine is detected, the helicopter can attack it with homing torpedoes or bring in other USW units to assist.
Sonar Radio sonobuoys are small, expendable floating hydrophone units that are dropped by aircraft in the area of a suspected submarine. Sonobuoys are usually dropped one at a time in a circular pattern around the contact area.
Sonar By analyzing the radio signals received from each sonobuoy, the location and direction of movement of the submarine can be determined. The target can then be attacked by the aircraft itself or by other available USW forces.
Name and discuss three factors can affect the speed of sound in water. 1. 2. 3. Note to Instructors: Click the Show/Hide Response Display Button
What is the difference between active and passive sonar? A. Active sonar sends out sound waves; passive sonar receives them. B. Submarines typically use active sonar; ships typically use passive. C. Active sonar listens for sounds produced; passive sonar monitors for movement. D. Active sonar monitors for movement; passive sonar listens for sounds. 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 7)
Match the term in the first column with the description in the second. A. B. C. D. 1 Z; 2 W; 3 X; 4 Y 1 Y; 2 Z; 3 W; 4 X 1 W; 2 X; 3 Y; 4 Z 1 Y; 2 W; 3 Z; 4 X 1 1 (NS 2 -M 3 C 23 S 2: LQ 8)