- Slides: 115
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and clothing is designed to protect the employee from chemical or physical hazards. – All other safety precautions must be in effect where possible before PPE is used. • Elimination Substitution • Engineering Controls Administration Controls • PPE – Last effort to protect from exposure
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Selection, Fit and Adjustment – – – Determine necessary PPE Pre-job planning Site specific orientation Supervisor SDS Container labels
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Selection, Fit and Adjustment – Meet ANSI requirements – Inspect – Check PPE for • Fit • Construction • Operation
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection, Fit and Adjustment – Employers Responsibilities • Specify appropriate PPE • Train on proper usage – Employees Responsibilities • • Don and use correctly Care for PPE Be aware of limitations Wear even if it takes more time
Person Protective Equipment (PPE) Work Clothes/Personal Protective Equipment – It is important to choose PPE that fits you properly: size, weight, shape and type for the job. – If you have a change in body type that would potentially cause your PPE to not fit properly, contact your supervisor immediately. – PPE should be inspected on a regular basis and replaced when damaged or worn.
Head Protection – Hard Hat/Safety Helmet • Anyone working or standing in the perimeter of identified hazardous areas is required to wear a hard hat at all times. • Hard hats must meet ANSI Z 89. 1 and OSHA standards as applicable. • The hat cannot be altered in any way such as carving, holes or removing parts.
Head Protection – Hard Hat/Safety Helmet • Hard hats must be plastic and not metal. • Hats and liners are to be: – Washed periodically with soapy water. – Inspected before each use. – Replaced as needed.
Head Protection – Hard Hat/Safety Helmet • The hard hat liner is the suspension system. • Adjust so there is a one-inch gap between the hard hat liner and the hard hat. • The hat should fit comfortably and securely to the head. • If a hard hat cap is worn, the bill must face the front.
Eye Protection - Goggles & Face Shields • All employees shall use approved eye or face protection (ANSI Z-87) when working on equipment when in areas identified as hazardous. • Employees who wear prescription lenses shall wear eye protection that incorporates the prescription in the design, or over-theglasses protective wear. (ANSI Z-87. 1)
Eye Protection - Goggles & Face Shields • When supervising, helping or performing welding operations, all filter lenses must meet the requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 1910. 133. • Contact lenses must be soft or gas permeable.
Eye Protection - Goggles & Face Shields • Face shields should be worn if greater protection from splashes and flying debris is needed. • Face shields must be worn with safety glasses or goggles.
Eye Protection - Goggles & Face Shields • Safety glasses and face shields shall be worn when: – – – Pouring a rope socket Power washing Grinding Chipping Performing any function with the potential for flying debris.
Eye Protection - Goggles & Face Shields • Safety goggles are required to be available on location at all times. • Check for cracks, scratches and other impairments that may affect performance.
Hand Protection - Gloves • The selection of hand protection shall be based on: – – – – A hazard assessment Conditions present Duration of exposure Potential hazard Glove material Company policy SDS
Hand Protection - Gloves, Etc. • Make sure there is no skin exposed between the glove and sleeve when working with chemicals. • Caution should be taken when wearing gloves around rotating and moving equipment. • Barrier creams are not considered adequate hand protection.
Foot Protection - Safety Toed Boots • Safety-toed boots are required to be worn in the shop, yard and all field locations. • Boots must have a safety cap and non-skid soles and must meet ANSI Z-41. • Boots must be in good condition and have a well defined heel.
Hearing Protection – Employees working in areas where the noise level exceeds 85 decibels are required to wear hearing protection. – Hearing protection must meet the Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) specified by ANSI. – Earplugs can be reusable or disposable. – Most importantly they need to be properly cleaned and stored.
Hearing Protection – Always wash your hands before inserting earplugs. – A tight protective seal is needed so insert the earplug well into the ear. – Earmuffs also protect your hearing and can be worn apart from the hard hat or attached to it. – Earplugs and ear muffs may be worn together to provide double hearing protection.
Clothing and Jewelry • Some companies require Fire Retardant Clothing (FRC) based upon the hazards which exist on location. • Close-fitting cotton or wool clothing is suggested. • Do not wear baggy or worn clothing.
Clothing and Jewelry • Long hair should be tied up and secured under the hard hat. • Well-servicing and other workers should never wear rings, watches, and other jewelry that could catch on tools or machinery or conduct electricity.
Respiratory Protection • • Necessary for environments That contain respiratory hazards That potentially contain respiratory hazards That cannot be controlled by other means
Respiratory Protection • Requirements for respirator uses: – Medical questionnaire – Fit Testing on the Make, Model and Size of respirator you will be wearing – Respiratory protection training – IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life/Health) environments require quantitative fit testing
Respiratory Protection • Types of Respirators – Air-purifying (APR) – Supplied-Air (SAR)
Respiratory Protection • Air-purifying Respirator – – Filters existing air Does not supply air or oxygen Match cartridge for environment Not for oxygen deficient environments
Respiratory Protection Supplied Air Respirator • Hoseline – Uses regulator – Connected to Grade D Air » Cascade system or air compressor • Self-contained breathing apparatus – Fully self-contained unit • SCBAs and SARS – Only type for IDLH environments
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • If you cannot eliminate or control the hazard, protect yourself with PPE. • Remember that PPE does not remove the risk, it lessens the impact of the risk.
Job Safety Analysis
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • JSA’s must be in place to ensure workers have the skills to identify, understand mitigate hazards to ensure tasks are completed safely. • Processes to monitor do not need to require a lot of time or paperwork. • Take a few minutes before each significant task to evaluate the situation.
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • There are multiple formats to achieve this process including but not limited to JSA, JSEA, JHA, JRA. It is important that you understand your specific companies requirement for this tool. • The purpose of the JSA is to create a communication between all the participants in the job task as to the hazards and mitigation associated with that task. It is every participants role and responsibility to participate in the JSA process.
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • Steps of a JSA – Write down the steps of the task. – Determine where a change in activity, change in direction or movement takes place. – Identify hazard and mitigate it if possible. – Recommend actions for hazard mitigation and control measures.
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • Control measures may include: – Engineering controls such as mechanical assistance, equipment redesign, housekeeping or ventilation. – Administrative controls such as training, hazardous energy control, or changing how the task is completed. – Personal Protective Equipment such as respiratory equipment, hearing protection or clothing.
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • Develop a worksite diagram that includes identified hazards and evacuation routes, and assembly area. • Conduct a tailgate safety meeting with affected parties. • Use the Stop Work Authority when work deviates from the analysis document. • The recommended time to conduct a JSA is before beginning any new work. • The JSA must be updated for any change in scope of the work
Simultaneous Operations • When simultaneous operations are going on, you must be aware of all the hazards that could potentially affect your safety and the safety of others. • Examples of simultaneous operations would be drilling and wire line or drilling and cementing being done at the same time. • Good communication is critical to avoid accidents.
Hazard Communication (Right to Know Standard)
Hazard Communication • There are two basic types of chemical hazards the regulation applies to – Health and Physical.
Hazard Communication • The “Right to Know” standard is important so that you may protect yourself from chemical hazard injury • Chemicals are present in all aspects of our lives, home and work. • Chemicals present a hazard when they are not properly used, stored, labeled, mixed and handled.
Hazard Communication • • • Evaluation of all chemicals Written HCS program Chemical Inventory Safety data sheets (SDS) Labeling Employee training and compliance
Hazard Communication • US aligns with GHS • GHS – – International approach to hazard communication Consistent standards Includes all hazardous chemicals Foundation for • Safe use of chemicals • Risk management systems • Hazard communication
Hazard Communication • • GHS provides standardization through Detailed criteria for hazard determination Standardized label elements Harmonized SDS format
Hazard Communication • Three areas of change – Hazard classification – Labels – SDSs
Hazard Communication • Labels – Communicate hazards of a substance or chemical – Product warning label carried from point of transfer to workplace – Consists of • • Colors Shapes Numerals Terms
Hazard Communication • Warning labels must: – – – – Be consistent with HCS Not conflict with hazard warnings and pictograms Identify the chemical Provide name and address of manufacturer List appropriate hazard warnings Be legible Be written in English
Hazard Communication Labels • Information provided on labels – – – Product Identifier Supplier information Pictograms and symbolic labels Signal words Hazard statements Precautionary statements
Hazard Communication Labels • Pictograms – Symbol plus graphic elements – Convey information about the hazards • Convey – Physical hazards – Health hazards – Environmental hazards
Hazard Communication – Label Pictograms Skull & Crossbones Acute Toxicity (Fatal or toxic) Flame Exclamation Mark Skin & Eye Irritant Dermal Sensitizer Acute Toxicity (harmful) Transient Target Organ Effects Harmful to Ozone Layer (not mandatory) Flammable Self Reactive Pyrophoric Self-Heating Emits Flammable Gas Organic Peroxides
Hazard Communication – Label Pictograms Exploding Bomb Health Hazard Carcinogenicity Respiratory Sensitizer Reproductive Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Mutagenicity Aspiration Toxicity Explosives Self Reactive Organic Peroxide Gas Cylinder Gases Under Pressure
Hazard Communication – Label Pictograms Flame over Circle Oxidizers Corrosion Corrosive Environment Chemicals that effect environment (Not required by OSHA, but is required by EPA)
Hazard Communication Containers may have one or a combination of hazard rating systems in addition to the required GHS label. • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) • Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS)
Hazard Communication • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) • NFPA Label 704 uses numbers to determine degree of hazard and colors to indicate type of hazard
Hazard Communication Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS)
Hazard Communication • DOT Placards – Diamond shaped warning signs – Numbers at base indicate DOT hazardous material class
Hazard Communication SDS – Safety Data Sheet • Identification • Hazard(s) Identification • Composition/Ingredient Information • First-Aid Measures • Fire-Fighting Measures • Accidental Release Measures • Handling and Storage • Exposure Control / Personal Protection • Physical & Chemical Properties • Stability & Reactivity • Toxicological Information • Ecological Information • Disposal Considerations • Transport Information • Regulatory Information • Other Information
Hazard Communication Safety Data Sheets • Maintained in binder • Located where chemical is used
Hazard Communication • Chemical Inventory – Up-to-date inventory – Each chemical must have SDS – Employees trained • Use inventory list • Identify chemicals
Hazard Communication Training Requirements • Part of orientation process • New physical or health hazards • Determine presence of release – What hazards are presented – How to protect yourself
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags • Signs and tags are used to define specific hazards that may lead to incidental injury to workers or the public, or to property damage. • Wording of signs should be: – Easy to read and concise. – Contain sufficient information to be understood. – Make a positive suggestion.
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags Warning Signs and Tags Sign Danger Caution/Warning Safety Use A hazardous situation in which a high probability of death or severe injury exists. Recommended to be predominantly RED. A hazardous situation which may result in minor or moderate injury. Recommended to be predominantly YELLOW A hazard level between Danger and Caution Color Scheme Red and black On white Black on yellow Black on orange Green on white Examples
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags • Tags: – Tags are not required to be used where signs, guarding or other positive means of protection are being used. – Tags convey the same types of messages as a sign but are typically made of paper or plastic and are attached as close as safely possible to a specific hazard.
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags • Tags must be used until the identified hazard is eliminated or the hazardous operation is complete. • Tags carry the same types of warnings, color coding and positive messages as a sign.
Working at Heights
Working at Heights • Falling from heights is a common cause of injury and death. • OSHA has standards to protect employees while working at heights – General industry: 4 feet – Construction: 6 feet • As with all activities never exceed your level of training.
Working at Heights • Conventional Systems: – Guardrail Systems – Safety Net Systems – Personal Fall Protection • Fall arrest systems • Positioning systems • Travel restraint systems
Working at Heights Fall protection systems must be in place when working above OSHA required heights. 100 % Tie-off is required when wearing a Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS)
Working at Heights - Anchor Point • Anchorage for fall arrest system – 80% of all errors – Directly above and behind worker – Withstand 5000 lbs per worker attached – Inadequate tie-off points • Hand railings • Process piping • Cable trays
Working at Heights - Full-Body Harness • Minimize injury • Maintains body in vertical position • Distributes force of fall
Working at Heights - Full-Body Harness • To be effective – Wear properly – Inspect as per company requirements, at a minimum manufacturers requirements – Visually inspect prior to use • Destroy if subject to fall • Follow manufacturers instructions
Working at Heights - Inspection • Fall protection should be inspected before each use. Look for: – – Wear and damage Buckles working properly Grommets are not stretched or broken Signs of a previous fall
Working at Heights - Lanyard • Connect anchor to harness • Length varies • Limit free fall distance – 6 feet or less • • Use in fall protection system Improvised lanyards not acceptable Double locking design Attach to back of full body harness
Working at Heights • Self Retracting Lanyard (SRL) – Alternate connecting devices to shock absorbing lanyards. – Make certain the lanyard is the proper length to allow the necessary worker movement and positioning. – Make certain that the right material type is chosen. Cable works best in high heat environments or around sharp edges. Webbing works best in most other applications.
Working at Heights • Do not expose fall protection equipment to corrosive materials or vapors, hazardous chemicals, or high temperatures. • The harness shall not be altered or misused to insure maximum protection during use. • When donning your fall protection, you must follow the manufacturers procedure for fitting the harness.
Working at Heights • Care – Always follow manufacturer recommendations for proper care and cleaning of your fall protection. – Fall protection should be cleaned with water and mild soap detergent solution and hung to air dry. – Store fall protection in a cool, dry, clean area out of direct sunlight.
Working at Heights • Properly fitting fall protection will be snug to the body and have room enough to place two fingers between the leg and the leg straps. • Too much room can cause you to be turned upside down in a fall which reduces your rescue time and can cause injury.
Working at Heights • All movement of the rig’s blocks should cease until personnel are in the workstations and secured to proper fall protection. • At no time shall an employee be unprotected from a fall while in the derrick or working above the required height except in an emergency evacuation.
Working at Heights • Lifting of personnel with Air hoist or hydraulic winch – Must be approved for Lifting personnel – Operator must not • Leave controls • Lift load on same line – Inspect fall arrest components before use
Working at Heights Powered platforms (Scissor Lifts) – Used during building maintenance – Moves in one direction only • Vehicle mounted platforms – Vehicle-mounted device – Telescoping – Articulating • Positions personnel
Working at Heights Protection from falling objects use – – – Toeboards Barricades Canopies Hard Hats Lines
MODULE 2 REVIEW
A Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is completed using a series of steps. Which of these steps is NOT correct? A. Write down the steps in the job task B. Identify hazards C. Recommend control measures for hazards D. JSA’s need to take a lot of time to do correctly
Which of the following is NOT a control measures? A. Engineering controls B. Administrative controls C. Supervisor controls D. PPE
The recommended time to conduct a JSA is before any new work. A. True B. False
Hazard Communication is also known as the “Right to Know” standard A. True B. False
Global Harmonization System (GHS) is the new international approach to hazard communication. It is the foundation for: A. Safe use of chemicals B. Risk Management systems C. Hazard communication D. All of the above
There are two basic types of chemical hazards the regulation applies to : A. Health and Physical B. Mental and chemical C. Psychological and Physical
Chemical labels can be written in the language of origin for the chemical when used in the United States A. True B. False
Pictograms convey information about: A. Environmental hazards B. Physical hazards C. Mental hazards D. A and B
Signs and Tags should be all of the following except: A. Easy to read B. Make a positive message C. Contain sufficient information to be understood D. All be the same size
The color of the signage associated with death or severe injury is black on yellow A. True B. False
Tags carry the same types of warnings, color coding and positive messages as a sign. A. True B. False
What other safety precaution must be in effect before the use of PPE? A. Elimination/Substitution B. Engineering Controls C. Administrative Controls D. All of the above
What or whom is used to determine the appropriate type of PPE to be worn? A. Pre job planning B. Supervisor C. SDS D. Employee E. A, B , C only
What are the responsibilities of the employer to the employee regarding PPE? A. Specify the appropriate PPE B. Training on the PPE C. Cleaning D. A and B only
What of the following is NOT a responsibility of the employee regarding PPE use? A. Don and use correctly B. Care for PPE C. Design factors D. Know the limitations
The hard hat may be altered to allow for comfort A. True B. False
Which of the following is NOT true about hard hats and liners? A. Washed periodically with soapy water B. Can be metal or plastic C. Inspected before each use
When wearing a face shield, goggles or safety glasses must also be worn. A. True B. False
A face shield must be worn when doing which of the following jobs? A. Power washing B. Grinding C. Functions that produce flying debris D. All of the above
Barrier creams are considered adequate hand protection. A. True B. False
Safety-toed boots are required to be worn when? A. Shop B. Yard C. Field locations D. All of the above E. B & C only
Employees working in areas where the noise level exceeds 85 decibels are required to wear hearing protection. A. True B. False
Employees have to do what in order to wear a respirator? A. Answer a medical questionnaire B. Be fit tested (Type specific) C. Be trained on use D. All of the above
What types of respirators are there? A. Air purifying (APR) B. Ambient Air (AA) C. Supplied Air (SAR) D. None of the above E. A & C only
What is the OSHA required height for fall protection in General Industry? A. 4 feet B. 6 feet C. No requirement D. None of the above
While working at heights, what would be some conventional safety systems used? A. Guardrail systems B. Personal fall protection C. Ladders D. A & B only
80% of all errors with fall protection systems involves the anchor point A. True B. False
All of the following are NOT good tie off points except: A. Hand railing B. Anchor points C. Process piping D. Cable trays
When working from heights, full body harnesses do all of the following except: A. Minimize injury B. Keep you from falling C. Maintain your body in a vertical position D. Distributes the force of the fall
Which of the following are characteristics of lanyards? A. 6 feet or less in length B. Double locking design C. Attach to the back dorsal D ring on the harness D. All of the above
When cleaning fall protection harnesses and lanyards, you may use what? A. Diesel/soap mixture B. Pressure washer C. Mild soapy water and a soft bristle brush D. Any commercial cleaner
Storage for fall protection can be: A. Outside on the rail in the sunlight B. In the back of your truck C. In a cool , dry, clean area out of sunlight D. All of the above