Modes of Transportation Dr TALEB M ALROUSAN Modes

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Modes of Transportation Dr. TALEB M. AL-ROUSAN

Modes of Transportation Dr. TALEB M. AL-ROUSAN

Modes of Transportations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Highways Urban Transit Air

Modes of Transportations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Highways Urban Transit Air Rail Water Pipelines Other Modes (Cable & built systems, magnetic levitation in conjunction with linear induction motors for high speed ground transportation).

Modes of Transportation Mode Classification Scheme Urban Freight Passenger Truck (highway) Private Auto (highway)

Modes of Transportation Mode Classification Scheme Urban Freight Passenger Truck (highway) Private Auto (highway) Transit (Highway/ Rail) Intercity (between urban areas) Truck (highway Private Auto (Highway) Bus (Highway) Intercity Travel: Rail Short trips Ocean Shipping Water (< 160 km). Inland water Water Pipeline Air Special Purpose Conveyor Belt Cable System Air Medium trips (160 – 800 km). Long trips (> 800 km).

Advantages & Complementary of Modes n n n Each of the modes usually complements

Advantages & Complementary of Modes n n n Each of the modes usually complements the others in carrying the nation’s freight and passengers. Business trip around the country: taxi……airplane…. . Auto…. Freight transport: trucks (for pick up and delivery)……. railroads for long distance hauling. Each mode has inherent advantages of: Cost, travel time, convenience, and flexibility that make it “ Right for the job” under a certain set of circumstances. Example: – Automobile: reliable, comfortable, flexible, and ubiquitous. – Air transport: When distance are great and time is premium. – intercity bus : When cost is important and time is not, or auto is not available.

Modes of Transportations Cont. n n n Effectiveness of modes is described in terms

Modes of Transportations Cont. n n n Effectiveness of modes is described in terms of accessibility of the mode, level of mobility it provides, and its productivity. Accessibility: Cost of getting to and from the mode in question and depend primarily on geographical extensiveness. Mobility: Described in terms of speed or travel time. Productivity: Measure of the total amount of transportation (product of the volume of goods or passengers carried and distance) provided per unit time. (ton-miles/yr) or (passengers-kilometers/ day). Cost (capital and operating).

Modes of Transportation/ Highway System Dominant Transportation mode. n Used by private vehicles, truck

Modes of Transportation/ Highway System Dominant Transportation mode. n Used by private vehicles, truck lines, and bus lines. n High accessibility to almost all potential destinations. n Direct service with very low door-to-door travel times. n Moderate line-haul speeds. n Moderate capacities. n

Modes of Transportation/ Highway System Capital cost of physical facilities vary a great deal

Modes of Transportation/ Highway System Capital cost of physical facilities vary a great deal depending on type and capacity of roadway, but as an overall its Moderate. n Vehicles are relatively small which make them cheaper and available more than other modes. n Operating cost tend to be relatively high. n High environmental impact. n

Modes of Transportation/ Urban Transit System n n Includes traditional mass transit modes (buses,

Modes of Transportation/ Urban Transit System n n Includes traditional mass transit modes (buses, street cars (taxi), light rail and rail rapid transit). Transit passengers: – Commuters or Choice riders: Persons making work trips into dense central business districts (CBD). – Captive riders: Persons without access to automobiles (school children, senior citizens, single-auto families, others with economically or physically disadvantaged).

Modes of Transportation/ Urban Transit System n n n n Line-haul speed vary a

Modes of Transportation/ Urban Transit System n n n n Line-haul speed vary a great deal depending on the mode used but generally lower than automobiles except in CBD and for rail rapid transit. Greater travel times except in cases mentioned above. Accessibility is less than autos. High capacities. Capital cost for rail are high and for buses are comparable to autos. Moderate operating cost. Environmental impacts are lower than autos.

Modes of Transportation/ Air Transportation System n n n n Includes: Commercial airlines, airfreight

Modes of Transportation/ Air Transportation System n n n n Includes: Commercial airlines, airfreight carriers, and general aviation (private aircraft). Major market: Intercity long-distance travel. High line-haul speed. Limited accessibility. Moderate capacity. High productivity. High capital and operating costs. Environmental impacts are significant (noise) but of much less concern than highway system.

Modes of Transportation/ Rail Transportation System Prime market: intercity freight. n Passenger rail trips

Modes of Transportation/ Rail Transportation System Prime market: intercity freight. n Passenger rail trips are short to intermediate. n Moderate speed. n Moderate accessibility. n High capital cost. n Productivity is low. n Operating cost per ton-mile are low. n Environmental impact is relatively low. n

Modes of Transportation/ Water Transportation System Consist of coastwise ocean shipping and barge lines

Modes of Transportation/ Water Transportation System Consist of coastwise ocean shipping and barge lines operating on inland waterways. n Major types of oceangoing freighters include: n – Container ships – Bulk cargo carriers – Oil tankers. Market : intercity freight. n Inland waterways and coastwise shipping specialize in bulk goods. n

Modes of Transportation/ Water Transportation System Cont. Low speed. n Low accessibility n High

Modes of Transportation/ Water Transportation System Cont. Low speed. n Low accessibility n High capacity. n Capital cost is high. n Operating cost per ton-mile are extremely low. n Environmental impact is relatively low but water pollution is a significant problem. n

Modes of Transportation/ Pipeline Transportation System n n n n Highly specialized freight transportation

Modes of Transportation/ Pipeline Transportation System n n n n Highly specialized freight transportation system. Market: Crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas. Low speed. High capacity. Continuous flow. Low cost (capital cost is 80% of total cost and operating cost is very low depending on pumping cost). Low environmental impact.

Modes of Transportation/ Other Modes n 1. Not Major Players in transportation system. Cable

Modes of Transportation/ Other Modes n 1. Not Major Players in transportation system. Cable & built systems: o Transporting freights within industrial complexes. o Transporting passengers (ski lefts and moving belts in airports) 2. Novel modes under development: Magnetic levitation in conjunction with linear induction motors for high speed ground transportation.

Public Transportation n All the family of transit services available to urban and rural

Public Transportation n All the family of transit services available to urban and rural residents. – Mass transit: fixed routes, published schedules, vehicle such as buses and light rail, or rapid transit with specific stops. – Para transit: more flexible and personalized service than mass transit in route and schedule, available on demand by subscription or on a shared-ride basis. – Ridesharing: two or more persons traveling together by prearrangement such as carpool, vanpool, buspool, or share-ride taxi.

Public Transportation Cont. n n n It can provide high capacity, energy efficient movement

Public Transportation Cont. n n n It can provide high capacity, energy efficient movement in densely traveled corridors. It serves medium and low density areas for both choice and captive riders. Transit ridership declined due to: – Increased auto ownership, – shifts to low density suburbs, – relocation of industry and commerce a way from the central city – changing in life style

Potential Changes Influencing Transit Usage n Bad for transit – Growth of suburb –

Potential Changes Influencing Transit Usage n Bad for transit – Growth of suburb – Industry or employment moving from the central city. – Growth in private vehicle ownership. – Increased diversity in in vehicle types such as SUV’s, pickup trucks, and RV’s. – High labor cost – high cost per mile to construct rail-transit lines.

Potential Changes Influencing Transit Usage n Good for transit – – Emphasis by federal

Potential Changes Influencing Transit Usage n Good for transit – – Emphasis by federal government on air quality. Higher prices of gasoline Locating of Mega centers in suburbs Increased number of seniors who cannot or choose not to drive. – Trends toward higher density living. – need for airport access and circulation within airports.

Potential Changes Influencing Transit Usage n Neutral for transit – Increase in telecommuting may

Potential Changes Influencing Transit Usage n Neutral for transit – Increase in telecommuting may require less travel to a work site. – Internet shopping or commerce could reduce shopping trips. – Changes in work schedule to accommodate child care could increase trip chaining. – Staggering work hours, flex-time, and four-day work weeks reduce peak-hour congestion. – Aging population, not transit users, may continue to drive. – Increased popularity in walking and biking could be a substitute for transit riding.