- Slides: 12
MODALS OF PROBABILITY AND THEIR OTHER USES
MODALS • Each modal has at least two meanings • I must go to school. - obligation • Her car is not here. She must be out. - probability • All modals express degrees of certainty, probability or possibility
IN THE ORDER OF CERTAINTY: • will, won’t - assumption based on our knowledge • must, can’t - logical conclusion of a situation • may, might, could - possibility
PRESENT: MODAL + INFINITIVE • The light is on in the house. They must be at home. • Their car is not here. They can't be at home. • Their car is not here. They could / may / might be out.
PRESENT: MODAL + BE + -ING FORM (CONTINUOUS INFINITIVE) • She is not at home. She may be studying at the library. • Everyone is asleep. He can't be listening to music now. • This is not real. You must be joking!
PAST: MODAL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE (PERFECT INFINITIVE) • What was that noise outside? That ’ll have been my cat. • The lights are off. The family must have gone out. • My wallet is not here. I may have lost it. • She studied very hard. She can't have failed the exam.
PAST: MODAL + HAVE + BEEN + -ING FORM • She was not at home. She may have been studying at the library. • He can't have been listening to music while everyone was asleep. • I didn’t believe a word you said. You must have been joking!
WOULD HAVE THOUGHT • Is commonly used to express an assumption (pretpostavka) • I’d have thought they’d email me. What’s happened? • You would have thought he’d help his friends.
OTHER USES OF MODALS • Should have done • Advice or criticism about a past event You should have told me the truth. I shouldn’t have laughed at her.
OTHER USES OF MODALS • Could have done • Unrealized past ability I could have taken my car to work. I preferred to cycle. • A past possibility that didn’t happen Why did he swim so far? He could have drowned! • To criticize people for not doing things You could have told me that Sue and Jim had split up!
OTHER USES OF MODALS • Might have done • Criticism You might have lent me the money! You knew I needed it! • Might have known/guessed that… • A typical action of someone or something I might have guessed that Samantha would forget our date.
OTHER USES OF MODALS • Needn’t have done • An action that was done, but wasn’t necessary You needn’t have repaired the car. I’m buying a new one. (You did repair it, but this wasn’t necessary. )