- Slides: 35
Modals (1) Form • simple and periphrastic modals • modal verbs v main verbs (2) Meaning • epistemic and root modality • possibility, necessity • core meanings and interpretations (3) Focus • can • use of past forms • must • negation (4) Summary & Conclusions Adapted from Yule, 1998
Form: simple and periphrastic Simple modals (Past forms) Periphrastic modals can (could) be able to may (might) be allowed to must have (got) to shall (should) be supposed to will (would) be going to He may have to pay a fine.
Form: modal verbs v main verbs Learner error Modal Main verb Category He mays He may He hopes Third person present singular He may to leave He may leave He hopes to leave To infinitive He is maying He is hoping Progressive He has mayed He has hoped Perfect Does he hope…? Do auxiliary Does he may…? May he…? third person singular –s, to infinitive, aspect, auxiliary
Meaning: epistemic and root Modals convey the speaker’s perspective/attitude to a situation. epistemic modality based on speaker’s deductions from what is known necessity or possibility of something happening strong conclusion- necessity She must get a bus to work. weak conclusion- possibility Our flight may be delayed. root modality based on speaker’s awareness of what is socially determined context of relationship of social power obligation/permission for something to happen obligation- necessity You must wear a life jacket. permission- possibility You may help yourself to some wine.
Meaning: core meanings necessity / possibility Specific circumstances influence interpretations of modal verbs. Modal Interpretations Exponent Core meaning can ability He can fly a helicopter. potential permission You can call me ‘Dave. ’ possibility It can get hot this time of year. permission May I take another? possibility Our flight may be delayed. concession He may be old, but he’s still fit. obligation You must stop at a red light. conclusion She must be hungry. intention I’ll call you tonight. willingness I’ll help you tidy up. prediction It’ll be the last time he tries that. (weak) obligation You should exercise more often. probability We should be finished soon. may must will should possibility necessity likelihood requirement
Focus: Can can ability permission possibility potential necessity/possibility
Focus: Can Exponent Interpretation Source of potential Modality He can fly a helicopter. ability animate agent epistemic You can call me ‘Dave. ’ permission social relationship (power dynamic) root It can get hot this time of year. possibility potential for something to occur (neither an animate epistemic agent, nor a social relationship) Child: Can I leave the table now? Parent: I’m sure you can, but you may not.
Focus: Can / Be able to Be allowed to can be applied for any functions of can. Function can be able to ability Jim can speak Spanish. Jim is able to speak Spanish. permission The teacher says you can leave. The teacher says you are able to leave. possibility Grammar can be fun! Grammar is able to be fun! However: We were able to repair the car. We could repair the car. - past event - remote potential
Past Forms: Remoteness Could adds remoteness. Events are interpreted by the speaker as being either distant in time, less likely or more polite. Interpretation Exponent Function ability I could eat more in the past. remote in time With the right tools, I could fix it myself. remote in likelihood permission possibility Could I leave early today if we aren’t too busy? Well, you could, but there’s a lot of work to be done. The reaction could be worse than expected. remote imposition/ more polite remote likelihood of permission being granted remote in likelihood may / might They may have a break after lunch. They might have a break after lunch. will / would I will lend you the money. I would lend you the money.
Past Forms: Subjunctive Past forms are also used when the speaker is referring to hypothetical situations. I could become president (if I were to study hard at school). You might win the lottery one of these days. And pigs might fly! She would have won the gold medal (had she been fit to compete).
Focus: Must must obligation conclusion necessity/possibility
Focus: Must Exponent Interpretation Visitors must not feed the animals. obligation (strong) I must remember to feed the cat later. obligation (weak) It must be lonely in there without anyone to talk to. conclusion Modality Characteristics root Animate subjects. Present/Future actions. Aspect is rare. Negation is common. epistemic Past/Present states (some actions). Can occur with nonanimate subjects. Perfect/Progressive aspect. Negation is rare. You must wear a hard hat.
Focus: Must / Have to can be used as an alternative to must in the present tense. He must wear a hard hat. He has to wear a hard hat. She must work at the bank. She has to work at the bank. I must sneeze. - obligation comes from I have to sneeze. uncontrollable external source that compels action Past tense uses: Must has no past form. Have to used to refer to past necessity. I had to finish the report before lunch. Negation: You mustn’t do it. You don’t have to do it.
Negation: Internal/External Two elements available for negation main verb modality (NOT action) (NOT modality) action It won’t rain. He can’t smoke here. predict (NOT rain) (NOT permit) smoke here epistemic modality root modality What is known is not being negated, but the action is. Some socially determined requirements can be negated. internal negation external negation
Negation: Exceptions: root obligation of mustn’t You mustn’t do it. obligation (NOT do) You don’t have to do it. (NOT obligation) do epistemic possibility of can’t It can’t work. (NOT possibility) work
Negation: Periphrastic Modals modality negated action/state negated doesn’t have to go isn’t going to go (NOT obligation) go prediction (NOT go) isn’t able to go isn’t supposed to go (NOT possibility) go isn’t allowed to go (NOT permission) go obligation (NOT go)
Summary • Convey speaker’s perception/attitude towards a situation • Epistemic and root meanings for each modal • Core meanings exist, but specific circumstances influence interpretation. • Simple modals and periphrastic models of similar meaning function differently. • Past forms are used to convey remoteness. • Internal/external negation depends on the interpretation of the modal.
Conclusions • The meaning and function of modals arise from the speaker’s perception of a situation. • The appropriate use of modals are therefore reliant on context and the speaker’s orientation. • To acquire competent use, learners require experiential practice that is highly contextualised. • Learners should be scaffolded in developing their own internal system of modal use through recognition and system-building exercises. • Modals ought to be revisited by learners in a variety of contexts over time in order to build an understanding of the appropriacy and limitations of their use. Learners need to engage in exploration to develop an awareness of the intricacies of their use. (Methodological approaches advocated by Willis, 2003)
References Willis, D. A. (2003). Rules, Patterns and Words: Grammar and lexis in English language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Yule, G. (1998). Explaining English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Learning Modals • Target Modals: Can • Target Students: -Age: Elementary School 1 st grade -English Level: Rudimentary • Agenda: Students understand how to use the modal verb ‘can’ and make sentences by themselves.
Learning Modals Lessons (10 -15 min. ) • • Warming Up (2 min) Practice Main verbs (2 min) Interview Game (3 min) Closing Bingo Game (3 min)
Learning Modals Swim
Learning Modals Jump
Learning Modals Cook
Learning Modals Read
Learning Modals Play the piano
Learning Modals Ride a bike
Learning Modals • Target Modals: Requirement, Permission modals • Target Students: -Age: Middle School, 2 nd grade -English Level: low intermediate • Agenda: Students can use requirement or permission modals in a right form.
Learning Modals Lessons (10 min. ) • Warming Up (2 min) • Reviewing of modals(3 min) (should, shouldn’t, mightn’t, may not, mustn’t, can’t, have to, don’t have to, will, won’t) • Filling the Blank (3 min) • Closing(2 min) -Checking the answer together
References • Anglomaniacy. pl http: //www. anglomaniacy. pl/verbs. Printable s. htm • Busyteacher http: //busyteacher. org/