modal verbs /Modal verbs are verbs that are always followed by another infinitive verb; verb E. g. She can play the piano very well. /To form the negative or the interrogative we don’t need an auxiliary verb: NEGATIVE – we just add NOT to the modal verb E. g. We must not (mustn’t) wear sunglasses in the classroom INTERROGATIVE – we just put the modal verb before the subject E. g. Can you speak German?
modal verbs /The 3 rd person of the verb; E. g. singular doesn’t take an -s/-es at the end He can run the marathon. /Each modal verb expresses E. g. many different meanings: She can go to the party tonight. (permission – asking and giving) Tattoos can damage your skin. (possibility/probability) Garfield can eat a birthday cake all by himself. (ability/capacity)
modal verbs – meanings CAN/COULD /ability/capacity e. g. She can read this text in two minutes. They can’t read without their glasses. /permission e. g. Can I go to the concert tonight? (asking permission) No, you can't go to the concert. (refusing permission) You can go to the cinema tonight. (giving permission)
modal verbs – meanings /request e. g. Can you pass me the salt, please? Could you open the window, please? (more polite, formal) /possibility/probability e. g. Piercings can be dangerous. You could get an infection. (less probable)
modal verbs – meanings MAY / MIGHT /permission (formal and polite) e. g. May I come in? Yes, you may /probability / possibility e. g. She may go to the USA next week. It’s a bit cold today. It might rain tomorrow… (less probable / possible)
modal verbs – meanings MUST /obligation e. g. Teens must ask for their parents’ permission. /necessity e. g. I don’t have food at home. I must go to the supermarket. /logical deduction/certainty e. g. Mary is missing classes. She never misses classes. She must be ill.
modal verbs – meanings MUSTN’T /prohibition e. g. Students mustn’t use their mobiles in classes. SHOULD /advice e. g. /opinion You should start studying. The test is tomorrow. You shouldn’t spend all your money on clothes. e. g. She believes every kid should have his/her own mobile.
modal verbs – practice Choose the most appropriate modal verb: 1. Mary ____ work really hard if she wants to get good marks. 2 - I believe children _____ stay with their mothers until the age of 3. 3 - _____ I check my e-mail on your computer? 4 - It is very late. You _____ phone your parents.
modal verbs – practice 5. I’m not sure but I _____ call you later if I have some doubts. 6 Mr. Smith, ____ I send you my paper by email? 7 She ______ read for hours without getting tired. 8 We ______ use these computers without our teachers’ permission.
modal verbs /THE END… /(Garfield shouldn’t have eaten the birthday cake by himself!)