Modal verbs CAN MAY MUST and their equivalents

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Modal verbs CAN, MAY, MUST and their equivalents Модальные глаголы и их заменители CAN

Modal verbs CAN, MAY, MUST and their equivalents Модальные глаголы и их заменители CAN Be able to Present Can Am Is are Able to 1 Возможность: Могу, умею, возможно 2 Разрешение: 3 Запрещение: нельзя Future Past Could Was were Able to Will be able to I can run very fast He can speak French. Can he do sums? You can get there by bus. You can come at my time Can I have a cup of coffee? You can’t cross the street here.

. Rewrite the sentences changing the tense form of the modal verb (if necessary)

. Rewrite the sentences changing the tense form of the modal verb (if necessary) adding the words in brackets. I am sorry, I cannot come to your birthday party (yesterday). 2. I speak very little French now, I can understand it (when I finish school next year). 3. He has always been good at Maths, but even he cannot solve this problem (at the last lesson). 4. Can I see the doctor (now)? 5. There was a sign. I cannot take pictures in the museum (when we were there). 6. Nobody can help me (then). 7. Can you do this work (tomorrow)? 8. We can go to the mountains (next year).

Translate the words in brackets using modal verbs. 1. He (не мог) decide what

Translate the words in brackets using modal verbs. 1. He (не мог) decide what career to choose. 2. Jane (сможет) to pass the exams well, if she studies hard. 3. She (может) apply for the job, but she has no experience. 4. Robert knew a lot about the job, he (мог) get on the job training but his father wanted him to take a course of studie 5. (Смогу ли я) attend evening classes if I take the job? 6. But she (не смогла) do the job property and had to quit (уволиться). 7. He (мог) play chess well but he (не смог) to win the game. 8. He knew what he wanted to be since he was six and he (смог) to persuade (убедить) his father to help him. 9. John (не мог) pass the exams when he finished schoo but he (смог) to retake it a year later. 10. He (мог) do the work by himself but together they (смогли) to finish it very quickly.

Fill in could or was/were able to. 1. He spoke very little French when

Fill in could or was/were able to. 1. He spoke very little French when he was at school, but he understand the language. 2. He was good at Maths, he solve the most difficult problems. 3. He was very strong, he ski all day and dance all night. 4. The swimmer was very tired, but he reach the shore. 5. We wanted to go to the opera, but we get the tickets. 6. After the accident, she somehow walk home. 7. All three children swim as well as they walk. 8. He repair the byke but it took him a long time.

Complete the sentences using the correct form of can, could, or be able to.

Complete the sentences using the correct form of can, could, or be able to. I see you tomorrow. It was too expensive – I buy it. have a word with you, please? I generally leave work at six, but I leave earlier on Fridays. you help me carry this downstairs? (she) come to the office tomorrow? I tried to see her, but I lift it. I come tomorrow, I'm afraid, I'm too busy. (you) contact your parents yesterday? After I had tried for a few hours, I open the door and get out. I see you next Monday at ten. They didn't come to the restaurant – they (not) afford it. When they came back from Paris they speak perfect French.

MAY Be allow to Present MAY Am Is Allowed to are 1 Разрешение: Можно,

MAY Be allow to Present MAY Am Is Allowed to are 1 Разрешение: Можно, разрешается 2 Строгое запрещение: Не смей 3 Возможность: (воз) можно Past Future MIGHT Was were Allowed to… Will be allowed to… May I come in? Yes you can( may). No, you can’t ( may not) You may not leave the room until I say so. You may often see such faces in the South of Russia

Rewrite the sentences putting them into the future. He may play computer games after

Rewrite the sentences putting them into the future. He may play computer games after he finishes his homework. 2. They may use dictionary during the test. 3. He may go there if he wants. 4. She may go to Canada, if she has a 5. You may help if you want to. 28. Rewrite the sentences using can, could, or may. Ask the permission in different styles I. I'd like to talk to you for a minute, Bill, (friendly) Can I talk to you for a minute, Bill? 2. Mrs. White, I would like to leave an hour earlier today, (formal) 3. I would like to use your computer, (more elite) 4. I would like to speak to Barbara, please, (polite) 5. I don't want you to use the phone in the office, (formal) 6. I would like to have some tea. (friendly) 7. Take my byke if you want to (friendly) 8. I would like to give you the answer tomorrow, (polite)

Ex. 29. Read the sentences and complete them with the verbs in brackets. In

Ex. 29. Read the sentences and complete them with the verbs in brackets. In Britain you are not allowed to leave school or to get married until you are 16. You cannot drive в car until you are 17, you cannot drive a taxi until you are 21. You are allowed to vote at 18. When you are 16 you (можете). . . and you (также можете). . . but you (не разрешается). . . until you are 18. You (можете). . . at the age of 17. You (не можете). . . until you are 21. You (можете). . . at the age of 17 and you (можете). . . at the age of 18. I It seems silly that you (разрешается). . . when you are only 16, but you (запрещается). . . until you are 17. I think you should (разрешать). . . a year earlier, when you are 17. If you (можете). . . at the age of 17 I don't see why you shouldn't (разрешать). .

must have to be to Present Past Must must have/has to. . . had

must have to be to Present Past Must must have/has to. . . had to. . . am/is/are to. . . was/were to. . . 1. долг, обязательство: должен □ □ 2. приказ, настоятельный совет: должен □ 3. запрещение: нельзя, □ запрещено Future will have to. . . We must study hard. I must buy some bread. You must go there at once. You must see the doctor immediately. You mustn't smoke here.

have to вынужден, придется (в связи с обстоятельствами): Ann's eyes are not very good.

have to вынужден, придется (в связи с обстоятельствами): Ann's eyes are not very good. She has to wear glasses for reading. Jane was feeling ill last night so she had to leave the party early. be to долженствование, связанное с планом, договоренностью: должен Не is to meet us at the station at five. This is Dora. She is room. to share your (1) Для образования вопросительной и от рицательной формы эквивалентаhave to используются вспомогательные глаголы do/does/did. Why did you have to go to hospital? Do you have to get up early at weekends? Tom doesn't have to work on Sundays.

Ex. 30. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. Explain the use of must

Ex. 30. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. Explain the use of must and its equivalents. 1. I must write to Ann. I haven't written to her for ages. 2. I am to meet Mother at the Metro S: at 5, I'm sorry, but I have to hurry. 3. I have to get up at 6 every working day. My day begins at 8 o’clock 4. You mustn't talk during the test. I'll have to ask you to leave. 5. He had to leave his native and look for a job. A. must - have to 1. You. . . follow my advice, there is no choice. 2. We. . . walk all the way to the station, there no buses. 3. It was very hot and we. . . start early. 4. They. . . show you how to organize the work 5. I feel I. . . do something to help the man. 6. The manager was busy and we. . . wait. The secretary has a lot of duties: she. . . type the documents and answer the letters. 8. He. . . sit up late when he was getting ready for the exams.

Ex. 32. Translate the words in brackets. I. It is getting dark so we

Ex. 32. Translate the words in brackets. I. It is getting dark so we (должны) go. 2. We agreed to go to the library. We (должны) meet at the metro station at 5. 3. Mother is away so we (приходится) to cook our meals. 4. He (должен) be there at 3 o'clock sharp, so he (придется) walk very quickly. 5. David is ill. He (должен) take this medicine. 6. I (пришлось) to wait for him for an hour. 7. You (не должен) say anything if you don't want to. 8. We don't have classes today. I (не нужно) get up early. 9. You (должны) find the mistake and correct it. 10. I (вынужден был) read the rule twice before I understood it.

Ex. 34. Put the correct form of must or have to in these sentences.

Ex. 34. Put the correct form of must or have to in these sentences. Use the negative or question if necessary and put have to in the correct tense. In some sentences, two answers are possible. 1. I. . . leave the party early last night I wasn't well. 2. I'm sorry, you. . . smoke here. Smoking is not allowed here. 3. The children are happy because they. . . do any homework today. 4. You. . . get up early tomorrow if you want to catch the bus. 5. . (you) have a visa to come here? 6. It was a very bad accident. You. . . be more careful in future. 7. I've told the children that they. . . come home before ten on Saturday nights. 8. . (you) do military service in your country when you were young? 9. It was a lovely holiday. We. . . do anything. 10. They were very rude. They. . . apologize the next day. 11. The teacher told us that we. . . work harder. 12. You. . . get a passport before you go abroad next month. 13. We. . . come back by boat because the airport was closed because of fog.

Should Имеет лишь одну форму. Выражает совет, рекомендацию, порицание: должен, следу ет, следовало бы,

Should Имеет лишь одну форму. Выражает совет, рекомендацию, порицание: должен, следу ет, следовало бы, не нужно было. *You should see a doctor. *Should we take umbrellas with us? You shouldn't wear a uniform for the party, you should wear a nice suite Совет, рекомендация. Относится к настоящему или будущему времени: следует, нужно You should stop smoking. Tom shouldn't drive so fast. Do you think, I should apply for the job? Порицание, сожаление, упрек. Относится к прошедшему времени: следовало, нужно было The party last night was great. You should have come. Why didn't you? It was his birthday yesterday. I should have sent him a birthday

Ex. 35. Give recommendation, ask for advice. Write the second sentence, using should and

Ex. 35. Give recommendation, ask for advice. Write the second sentence, using should and the words given. A. 1. It's past the children's bedtime, (they/be/in bed) They should be in bed. 2. Can't they see the "No Smoking" sign? (they/not smoke/in here) 3. These windows are dirty, (you/clean them more often) 4. Peter drives too fast, (he/drive/more carefully) 5. He owes (должен) you a lot of money, (you/not lend him/any more) 6. There won't be much food at the picnic, (we/take something/to eat? ) 7. I'm not sure what to wear at the party. (I/wear/a suit? ) 8. He says he can get us what we want, (we/pay him/now? ) 9. The hotel is too expensive, (we/not stay/there 10. It's her birthday next week, (maybe we/send her/a present? )

B. Write sentences according to the model. Model 1: I didn't drive along the

B. Write sentences according to the model. Model 1: I didn't drive along the coast. / should have driven along the coast. I didn't buy a map. I didn't watch the signs. I didn't bring enough money. I didn't have traveller's checks with me. I didn't plan my trip carefully. Model 2: I took a trip, (stay home) / should have stayed home I went by car. (plane) I left on Wednesday. (Tuesday) I took the scenic route, (main highway) I got lost, (buy a map) I arrived on Monday. (Saturday)

must or should осознание долга /необходимости приказ: должен запрет (mustn't): нельзя, запрещено Ann is

must or should осознание долга /необходимости приказ: должен запрет (mustn't): нельзя, запрещено Ann is ill. I must visit her today. Soldiers must obey orders. Passengers must not speak to the driver. совет, рекомендация (should): порицание (should (not) have. . . ): не следовало, не нужно было You really should stop smoking. We got lost. You should have a map! (следовало, нужно было)

Ex. 36. Complete the sentences saying what is good or right thing to do

Ex. 36. Complete the sentences saying what is good or right thing to do in this case, using should or should not. 1 drive carefully on a busy road. 2 eat between meals if you want to lose weight. 3 go to the dentist regularly. 4 lie in bed late every day. 5 clean your teeth twice a day. 6 eat a lot of sugar. 7 be more careful. 8 spend a lot of money. Ex. 37. Which do you think is better must or should? I. You look tired. I think you ------- have a holiday. 2. Tell your brother he---- come home at once! 3. People----realize that the world is in serious trouble! 4. It's a fantastic film. I----see it this week. 5. Visitors are reminded that they ------leave their bags in the boxes downstairs. 6. I'm sorry, but you----leave. We don't want you here. 7. I'm gaining weight. I----go on a diet. 8. You have you hair cut at least once a month. 9. You----- wear a uniform to school. It's a rule.

Ex. 38. Fill in should or should (not) have and use the verb in

Ex. 38. Fill in should or should (not) have and use the verb in brackets in the corresponding form. 1. It's Christmas in a week. We (send) Granny a postcard. 2. She took offence. You (say) that. 3. I think teachers (be paid) more. 4. Why didn't you phone? You (phone) to say you'd be late. 5. It's raining. You (take) an umbrella. 6. It's too far to walk. We (take) a taxi. 7. Now you've broken it. You (read) the instructions carefully. 8. I didn't know you were coming. You (call) me the day before. 9. You have to get up early. You (set) your alarm clock. 10. You are late. You (be) here an hour ago.

Ex. 40. Use should or have to / had to. 1. I send a

Ex. 40. Use should or have to / had to. 1. I send a telegram, it was too late to send a letter. 2. You find a lawyer to. give you good advice. 3. There were no buses yesterday. We walk home. 4. When you are driving, you wear a seat belt. 5. My eyesight isn't very good. I wear glasses. 6. It's a good book, you read it. 7. You look ill. You go to bed and call the doctor. 8. He doesn't understand much English, so I speak to him very slowly.

Ex. 41. Put should, must or have to in the sentences below, using negatives

Ex. 41. Put should, must or have to in the sentences below, using negatives or questions if necessary. 1. They----- be arriving in a few hours. 2. We---- go home at twelve because my mother didn't feel well. 3. They insisted that we -------have a meal. 4. There are no trains today, so we--to go by car. 5. I think you----- tell your parents you're going to be late. They'll be worried. 6. You ---never do that again! 7. The manager suggested that we---- try to find another hotel. 8. You---see that film if you get the chance. 9. According to our information, the President------- be reelected. 10. Do you think we-------ask before we borrow the car? 11. You-----come if you don't want to. 12. You --- be smoking at your age. 13. He asked me anxiously what he----do next. 14. Do you think I ----tell the teacher what happened? 15. My boss told me that I ---- be late.

Ex. 42. Put in suitable positive or negative forms of have to, be allowed

Ex. 42. Put in suitable positive or negative forms of have to, be allowed to, be able to. THINGS WERE DIFFERENT THEN! When Lucy's great grandmother comes to stay, she notices how things have changed since was a girl. "You don't realize how lucky you are, Lucy! When I was a girl, we all 1 wear thick black stockings for school, even in the heat of summer. We 2 wear shorts at all in fact, we 3 even be seen in trousers! Nowadays, all young people learn to drive. In my day, not many people 4 afford a car. Luckily, my parents had one, but I 5 often drive it. My father thought women 6 drive at all! You 7 take a driving test at all. You just bought your car, and you 8 drive off in it without a single lesson. When I was young, far fewer women 9 go to university. Most of the places reserved for men. I went into teaching, as you know, but when I got married, I automat 10 give up my job. I don't think many women would get married today if they 11 do that, do you? "

Ex. 44. Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas but

Ex. 44. Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas but you are not sure. What would you to say? 1. What are you going to do after you finish school? 2. Do you plan to go to college? 3. Are you going to join your father's company? 4. Will you go to Technical school or University? 5. Are you going to study law as your father or medicine as your mother? 6. Are you planning to train for a job? Model: I am not sure yet. / might look for a job. I don't know yet I haven't decided yet

Ex. 45. Express the same idea replacing the words possibly, perhaps (возможно), may /

Ex. 45. Express the same idea replacing the words possibly, perhaps (возможно), may / might. 1. Perhaps Mrs Smart is right. Mrs Smart may be right. 2. Perhaps he is at school. 3. Possibly the game will be on Monday. 4. Perhaps Misha is ill. 5. Possibly they are on the playground.

Ex. 46. Rewrite the parts in bold type saying that you are almost certain.

Ex. 46. Rewrite the parts in bold type saying that you are almost certain. 1. Peter doesn't look at you. Obviously he is angry with you. He must be angry with you. 2. He is very pale. I'm sure he is not feeling well 3. You look happy. You seem to be enjoying your holiday 4. Your son has won a scholarship. Of course, you are very proud of him 5. There is nobody in the classroom. Probably they are in the lab

Ex. 47. Translate the words in brackets. 1. He (возможно) be late at home.

Ex. 47. Translate the words in brackets. 1. He (возможно) be late at home. 2. He (должно быть) have fallen ill. 3. He (может быть) have caught cold while playing 4. Where is Mary? She (возможно) be still sleeping. 5. She (должно быть) be tired. 6. She (вероятно) have been working, yesterday. 7. Where is Mother? She (очевидно) be in the 8. She (возможно) be watering the flowers. 9. I can't find my text book(должно быть) have left it at school. 10. It (возможно) be in your bag. 11. You (вероятно) have given it to Mike. 12. You (возможно) have forgotten to borrow it from the library.

TEST YOURSELF I. Complete the conversation with the suitable verb. Jack: Good morning. May

TEST YOURSELF I. Complete the conversation with the suitable verb. Jack: Good morning. May (Must/May) I speak to Mr. Harris, please? Secretary: I'm sorry. He (can't/mustn't) come to the phone right now. (May/Should) I take a message? Jack: I (must/may) get hold of him today. It's very important. Secretary: (Can/Must) you hold on? I think I hear him coming. Jack: Sure. Thank you. Ed: Hi, Jack! What's up? Jack: Listen. There's a big problem with the Larsen account (счет). I just (shouldn't/can't) figure it out! What do you think I (should/ may) do? Ed: The Larsen account? Well, one thing you (can't/shouldn't) do is worry. I was about to call you. The reason you (mustn't/can't) figure it out is that the figures they gave us aren't accurate. Jack: What? ! No wonder I (can 't/ mustn 't) get it to work out. Thanks for telling me!

II. Choose the correct verb underlined in each sentence. Sorry I'm late. I had

II. Choose the correct verb underlined in each sentence. Sorry I'm late. I had to/may go to the library. My brother could walk/might walk before he started talking. George hadn't to wait/didn't have to wait long for the bus. Sam dropped the three glasses, but he might catch/was able to catch one. The weather forecast says it may rain/is to rain tomorrow.

III. Put a suitable modal verb in each space. You're only wearing a T

III. Put a suitable modal verb in each space. You're only wearing a T shirt and shorts. You feel cold! This be your bag. It hasn't got your name on it. Perhaps you left your book on the bus, or it be at home. He wasn't at school yesterday and I didn't see him in the gym. No doubt he caught cold. Possibly Mary didn't hear what you said or she misunderstood you. They left the country only yesterday. I saw them in the shop.