MMS Extended Mission Science Con Ops Phase 4

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MMS Extended Mission Science Con Ops Phase 4 B, including Turbulence Campaign POC: Steve

MMS Extended Mission Science Con Ops Phase 4 B, including Turbulence Campaign POC: Steve Petrinec, David Rand, Thom Moore, Bob Ergun, Steve Fuselier The content herein are intended as broad guidelines for implementation. As for earlier mission phases, Steve Petrinec is granted broad discretion to adjust as appropriate to meet the stated goals/constraints and to resolve the many “edge cases” that are necessarily not covered. 1

Extended Mission Year-4 Phases BS@~1. 0 n. Pa BS@~0. 3 n. Pa Orbit 9

Extended Mission Year-4 Phases [email protected]~1. 0 n. Pa [email protected]~0. 3 n. Pa Orbit 9 Re 12 Re 15 Re MP (2. 3 n. Pa) MP (0. 3 n. Pa) Bow Shock (2. 3 n. Pa) Bow Shock (1. 0 n. Pa) Bow Shock (0. 3 n. Pa) Phase Boundary [email protected]~2. 3 n. Pa 4 C 3 SROI [email protected]~0. 3 n. P 4 B [email protected]~2. 3 n. P 3 SROI Apogee Raise 4 D 3 SROI rd 3 tail pass EM Phase Time Span Defined by Ops Approach A ~09/26/18 - 11/29/18 End of Phase 3 D Dwell time outside BS (0. 3 n. Pa < 10 hrs 3 SROI B 11/29/1804/16/19 Dwell time outside BS (0. 3 n. Pa) > 10 hrs 3 SROI, solar wind turbulence campaign C ~04/16/19 ~06/17/19 Dwell time outside BS (2. 3 n. Pa) < 10 hrs 3 SROI D ~06/29/19 ~9/25/19 Apogee within avg. MP (~2. 3 n. P) 3 SROI (dusk) (dayside) (dawn flank) 4 A (nightside) 3 SROI Note: Sub-Phase C/D dates approx. due to apogee raise 2

SROI Plan for Phase 4 A and half of 4 B

SROI Plan for Phase 4 A and half of 4 B

Orbit projections for 2 nd half of Phase 4 B Turbulence campaign Apogee-Raise 2:

Orbit projections for 2 nd half of Phase 4 B Turbulence campaign Apogee-Raise 2: 8 Feb 2019 Apogee-Raise 1: 2 Feb 2019 4

Notional Science ROIs (10 hrs in sw during TC) 5

Notional Science ROIs (10 hrs in sw during TC) 5

Planned Apogee Raise and Turbulence Campaign Maneuver Timing Event Orbit Date (2019) String Init

Planned Apogee Raise and Turbulence Campaign Maneuver Timing Event Orbit Date (2019) String Init to enter “safety string” 972/973 Jan. 24/25 Apogee-Raise 1 975/976 Feb. 2 Apogee-Raise 2 977/978 Feb. 8 Tilt to TC attitude 978 Feb. 10 First TC apogee in post-AR string 979 Feb. 14 980/981 Feb. 18/20 First TC apogee in “science string” 981 Feb. 21 Tilt back to nominal science attitude* 986 In period Mar. 6 -7 988/989 Mar. 11 -13 Attitude cleanup (DH) [If needed] String Adjust to enter “science string” Maneuver back to (20 km? ) tetrahedron formation* Taken from T. Williams slides - Oct. 23, 2018 6

SROI PROPOSAL FOR APOGEE RAISE, TURBULENCE CAMPAIGN, AND REMAINDER OF PHASE 4 B Orbit

SROI PROPOSAL FOR APOGEE RAISE, TURBULENCE CAMPAIGN, AND REMAINDER OF PHASE 4 B Orbit Date 972 Jan 24 973 Jan 25 974 975 Feb 2 976 Apogee / Formation SROI 1 / outbound SROI 2 / SW SROI 3 / inbound Form Safety String 25 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Form Safety String - adjust 25 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Post Maneuver Orbit Determination 25 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Apogee Raise #1 at end of orbit 25 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Post Maneuver Orbit Determination 25 Re+ / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs + 3 hrs FPI dark BS+ L~6 Events 977 Feb 8 Apogee Raise #2 at end of orbit 25 Re+/ 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs + 3 hrs FPI dark BS+ L~6 978 Feb 10 Tilt ~just-post-apogee 29 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Tilted 29 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 29 Re / 85+ 40 50+ L~6 BS+ SW ~10 hrs+ 3 hrs FPI dark BS+ L~6 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~10 hrs BS+ L~6 979 980 Feb 18 Tilted - Form TC String 981 Feb 20 Tilted - Form TC String – adjust – Start TC SITL Magnetic reconnection candidates, important MP events have priority. Cut back on selections to free up long-term storage for SW campaign FPI selects <5 min bursts for noise probe 982 Tilted - Turbulence Campaign 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~10 Hrs BS+ L~6 983 Tilted - Turbulence Campaign 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~10 hrs BS+ L~6 984 Tilted - Turbulence Campaign 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~10 hrs BS+ L~6 985 Tilted - Turbulence Campaign 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~10 hrs BS+ L~6 un-Tilt ~post-apogee – End TC 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~10 hrs BS+ L~6 Post Maneuver Orbit Determination 29 Re / 100 25 50 L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 29 Re / 20 L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Outside of SROI, FPI performs RTS validation 29 Re / 20 L~6 BS+ SW ~3 hrs BS+ L~6 Nominal Guidelines 986 Mar 6/7 988 Mar 11 989 990–> Form 20 km Tetrahedron - adjust Mar 13 – ~Apr 14 Routine dayside science Magnetic reconnection candidates, Important MP events, and two 2 -5 hr “pristine SW” events have priority Cut back selections to ensure TC downlink *L~6 Boundary adjusted to accommodate nominal instrument calibrations etc as is nominal

Planned Timeline, Apogee Raise and Start of Turbulence Campaign Maneuver types String Init (SI)/

Planned Timeline, Apogee Raise and Start of Turbulence Campaign Maneuver types String Init (SI)/ String Adjust (SA) Apogee-Raise (AR) Post-AR string ~85 ~40 Attitude clean-up “Science string” ~50 100 Ready for initial TC science: Feb. 14 25 50 Ready for full TC science: Feb. 21 Tilt Feb. 10 FPI noise probe “Safety string” 85+ Rev 972 Rev 973 SI Jan. 24/25 • • 40 50+ Rev 974 OD Rev 975 OD Rev 976 AR 1 Feb. 2 Rev 978 Rev 977 OD AR 2 Feb. 8 Rev 979 OD Rev 980 OD Rev 981 SA Feb. 18/20 Note: MMS separations (in km) evaluated at apogee No attitude or string maintenance maneuvers expected during TC Shortly after end of TC, spacecraft will be tilted back to nominal science attitude and put back into tetrahedron formation (scale size 20 km) New: FPI to “go dark” (turn off MCPs) during last 3 hr of SW SROI to probe spectrometer noise floors, will select <5 min/orbit of burst Taken from T. Williams slides - Oct. 23, 2018 8

Planned Timeline, Turbulence Campaign & Return to Science Formation Turbulence Campaign Downlink 5 -10

Planned Timeline, Turbulence Campaign & Return to Science Formation Turbulence Campaign Downlink 5 -10 hrs of TC bursts Mar. 7/8 Maneuver types Formation Init (FI) Tilt Potential FPI RTS Update Checkout Rev 982 Rev 983 Rev 984 Rev 985 Rev 986 Rev 987 OD Rev 988 OD Rev 989 FI (20 km) Mar. 11/13 Ready for routine science: Mar. 13 • New: FPI to perform real-time validation of RTS updates, FPI likely not collecting FS during some or all SROIs on these two orbits (selections already limited to prioritize downlink of TC bursts) Taken from T. Williams slides - Oct. 23, 2018 9

Apogee Raise Spacecraft Separations Provided by Conrad Schiff 10

Apogee Raise Spacecraft Separations Provided by Conrad Schiff 10

Backup Slides Phase 4 B 11

Backup Slides Phase 4 B 11

FPI NOISE FLOOR IN THE SOLAR WIND FPI intends to fully participate in the

FPI NOISE FLOOR IN THE SOLAR WIND FPI intends to fully participate in the 2019 solar wind turbulence campaign with no reduction in runtime The noise floor can be reduced only through increasing the total number of counts through (a) the sampling of higher density plasmas or (b) increasing the accumulation time. ~1 December 2018 Spectral noise floor of FPI is dominated by Poisson counting errors 1 h 100 h 1 hour of solar wind data 2017 Nov 24 01: 10: 03 -02: 10: 03 n ~ 9 cm-3, B ~ 5 n. T See Bandyopadhyay et al. , Solar Wind Turbulence Studies Using MMS Fast Plasma Investigation Data, Ap. J, 2018 To resolve spectral properties of SW fluctuations at kinetic scales: (1) Target dense plasmas to maximum counts (i. e. , reduce spectral noise) (2) Target slow solar wind to minimize Doppler Shift (i. e. , shift to lower frequency) (3) Target weaker field to maximize gyroscales (i. e. , shift to lower frequency) (4) Increase time accumulation by order(s) of magnitude (i. e. , reduce spectral noise)

FPI RUNTIME IN MISSION YEAR 4 • Orbit Period: Orbit Duration Pre-Apogee Raise Post–Apogee

FPI RUNTIME IN MISSION YEAR 4 • Orbit Period: Orbit Duration Pre-Apogee Raise Post–Apogee Raise Hours 67. 6 Days 2. 8 84 3. 5 Above 9 Re Below 9 Re Pre-Apogee Raise 59. 2 hr 8. 4 hr Post-Apogee Raise 75. 5 hr 8. 5 hr Greatest risk to these HV 801 s are thought to be thermal cycling and runtime • Historical and Proposed Phase 4 FPI Runtime: Planned Budgeted Approx. SROI FPI Actual FPI Mission Phase # Orbits Hours Runtime Comm. 173 500 1 A 189 2000 2600 1 X 204 0 ~0 1 B 136 2000 2100 2 A 46 0 100 2 B 43 2000 2200 3 A 26 1000 1300 3 B 43 1235 1200 3 C 25 1000 1200 3 D 36 2000 ~1750 4 A 22 850 4 B ~45 ~1000 4 C ~18 tbd 700 4 D ~36 tbd 1750 Note: Planning includes solar wind runtime in 4 A/B = ~170 hrs MMS 1 shown, other observatories very similar POC: David Rand at GSFC

FAILURE PROBABILITY FOR THRESHOLD REQUIREMENT BASED ON IN-FLIGHT DATA ~End of tail phase 4

FAILURE PROBABILITY FOR THRESHOLD REQUIREMENT BASED ON IN-FLIGHT DATA ~End of tail phase 4 D Credit to John Dorelli and Ulrik Gliese