Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Direct and Indirect Objects

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Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Direct and Indirect Objects Prepositional Phrases

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Direct and Indirect Objects Prepositional Phrases

Prepositional Phrases • A phrase is a group of words that functions in a

Prepositional Phrases • A phrase is a group of words that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. • Prepositional phrases always include a preposition and a noun or pronoun (called the Object of the Preposition-OP). • The phrase may also include modifiers.

Prepositional Phrases • Here are some common prepositions. To At Of In On Up

Prepositional Phrases • Here are some common prepositions. To At Of In On Up For From Below With Near Into Toward Beneath Between Beyond Around Down Above Before After Until Through In front of

Prepositional Phrases * Warning: Sometimes some of these words also work alone as adverbs:

Prepositional Phrases * Warning: Sometimes some of these words also work alone as adverbs: Let the cat in. I could feel that the monster was near. To At Of In On Up For From Below With Near Into Toward Beneath Between Beyond Around Down Above Before After Until Through In front of

Prepositional Phrases • A prepositional phrase can function either as an adjective or as

Prepositional Phrases • A prepositional phrase can function either as an adjective or as an adverb. • Let’s review what adjectives and adverbs do.

Prepositional Phrases Adjectives Modify Nouns or Pronouns Adverbs Verbs, Adjectives, or Other Adverbs Answer

Prepositional Phrases Adjectives Modify Nouns or Pronouns Adverbs Verbs, Adjectives, or Other Adverbs Answer Which one? What kind? How many? How much? How? When? Where? To what extent? (Why? Under what condition? )

Prepositional Phrases • Find the prepositional phrases; decide whether they are adjective or adverb

Prepositional Phrases • Find the prepositional phrases; decide whether they are adjective or adverb phrases. • William sat in the chair near the door. • After dinner, we walked on the beach.

Prepositional Phrases • Find the prepositional phrases; decide whether they are adjective or adverb

Prepositional Phrases • Find the prepositional phrases; decide whether they are adjective or adverb phrases. • William sat in the chair near the door. • Sat where? Adverb phrase • Which chair? Adjective phrase

Prepositional Phrases • Find the prepositional phrases; decide whether they are adjective or adverb

Prepositional Phrases • Find the prepositional phrases; decide whether they are adjective or adverb phrases. • After dinner, we walked on the beach. • Walked when? Adverb phrase • Walked where? Adverb phrase

Prepositional Phrases • Once words are in a prepositional phrase, they can NOT do

Prepositional Phrases • Once words are in a prepositional phrase, they can NOT do any other job in a sentence. • Find the subject in this sentence. • A vase of flowers is on the table.

Prepositional Phrases • Eliminating the prepositional phrases makes the subject clear. • A vase

Prepositional Phrases • Eliminating the prepositional phrases makes the subject clear. • A vase of flowers is on the table.

Direct and Indirect Objects • A clause is a group of words that has

Direct and Indirect Objects • A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. • The verb may be an action verb or a linking verb.

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the verb is a linking verb: • Mary

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the verb is a linking verb: • Mary is my friend. • The cat seemed friendly. • Linking verbs connect the subject to either a noun/pronoun that renames the subject OR to an adjective that describes the subject.

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the verb is a linking verb: • Mary

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the verb is a linking verb: • Mary is my friend. • Predicate Nominative/Noun The cat seemed friendly. Predicate Adjective • Linking verbs NEVER have Direct or Indirect Objects

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the verb is an action verb. • The

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the verb is an action verb. • The cat chased the rat. • Bill sneezed loudly. • Sometimes a sentence with an action verb also has a direct object. • Sometimes it does not.

Direct and Indirect Objects • To find whether the sentence has a direct object,

Direct and Indirect Objects • To find whether the sentence has a direct object, ask “Verbed what? ” • The cat chased the rat. • “Chased what? ” the rat • To check the answer, ask “Is the rat what got chased? ” • Yes=Direct Object (DO) • No=Not a Direct Object

Direct and Indirect Objects • The cat chased the rat. • Action verbs that

Direct and Indirect Objects • The cat chased the rat. • Action verbs that have a direct object are called TRANSITIVE VERBS. • Trans mean across, as in transfer, transport, and transmit. • The action of the verb transfers to the DO.

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object for this sentence: • Joe ate several cookies for dinner. • Ate what? • Are _____ what got eaten? • Remember that the noun in the prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition (OP) and cannot do any other job in the sentence.

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object for this sentence: • I saw a bird sitting on my mailbox. • Saw what? • Is ______ what got seen?

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object for this sentence: • Please bring your notebook with you to class. • Bring what? • Is ______ what you will bring? • Bonus question: What is the subject?

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object

Direct and Indirect Objects • Let’s see if you can find the direct object for this sentence: • Max gave me a pencil. • Gave what? • Is _____ what was given?

Direct and Indirect Objects • Max gave me a pencil. • This time you

Direct and Indirect Objects • Max gave me a pencil. • This time you see a pronoun between the verb and the DO. • It tells to or for whom or what the DO was given. • This is called the Indirect Object (IO).

Direct and Indirect Objects • Max gave me a pencil. • AV IO DO

Direct and Indirect Objects • Max gave me a pencil. • AV IO DO • Gave the pencil to whom? Me. • The Indirect Object is always in this location in the sentence. Other words may be added, but the ORDER of the AV, IO, and DO will remain the same.

Direct and Indirect Objects • Max gave me a pencil. • AV IO DO

Direct and Indirect Objects • Max gave me a pencil. • AV IO DO • The same idea can be written differently: • Max gave a pencil to me. • AV DO ? • • Now the ORDER is wrong. So what is me now?

Direct and Indirect Objects Me is now the object of the preposition to. •

Direct and Indirect Objects Me is now the object of the preposition to. • Max gave a pencil to me. • AV DO OP • Remember that the noun in the prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition (OP) and cannot do any other job in the sentence.

Direct and Indirect Objects • A sentence can have a Direct Object with or

Direct and Indirect Objects • A sentence can have a Direct Object with or without an Indirect Object. • Mary gave the cashier the money for lunch. • AV IO DO • Mary gave money to the cashier. • AV DO OP Prepositional Phrase • A SENTENCE CAN NEVER HAVE AN INDIRECT OBJECT WITHOUT A DIRECT OBJECT!

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the action verb does not have a direct

Direct and Indirect Objects • Sometimes the action verb does not have a direct object. • Bill sneezed loudly. • Sneezed what? • Loudly is HOW he sneezed and is an adverb. • Action verbs that DO NOT have direct objects are called INTRANSITIVE VERBS

Direct and Indirect Objects • Determine whether the verbs in these sentences are Transitive

Direct and Indirect Objects • Determine whether the verbs in these sentences are Transitive or Intransitive. • 1. Lynn took lunch to her mother. • 2. I apologized for the mistake. • 3. The dog gobbled its dinner quickly. • 4. Many students improved their grades this quarter. • 5. The cat stretched in the afternoon sun.

Direct and Indirect Objects • Determine whether the verbs in these sentences are Transitive

Direct and Indirect Objects • Determine whether the verbs in these sentences are Transitive or Intransitive. • 1. Lynn took lunch to her mother. T • 2. I apologized for the mistake. I • 3. The dog gobbled its dinner quickly. T • 4. Many students improved their grades this quarter. T • 5. The cat stretched in the afternoon sun. I

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • A misplaced modifier appears to modify the wrong word

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • A misplaced modifier appears to modify the wrong word in a sentence. • Dad bought a desk from an antique dealer with a secret compartment. • Does the antique dealer have a secret compartment? ?

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • A modifier should be placed as close as possible

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • A modifier should be placed as close as possible to the word it modifies. • Dad bought a desk with a secret compartment from an antique dealer.

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • A dangling modifier appears to modify the wrong word

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • A dangling modifier appears to modify the wrong word or no word at all because the word it should logically modify is missing. • Flying low over the treetops, a herd of elephants charged into our view. • Were the elephants flying?

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • How can we correct this? • Flying low over

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • How can we correct this? • Flying low over the treetops, a herd of elephants charged into our view. • Who or what was flying? Our is a clue. • We were flying.

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • How can we correct this? • Flying low over

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • How can we correct this? • Flying low over the treetops, a herd of elephants charged into our view. • Flying low over the treetops, we saw a herd of elephants charge into our view.

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Can you find the misplaced or dangling modifier and

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Can you find the misplaced or dangling modifier and correct the sentence. • Sniffing the carton cautiously, the milk didn’t smell sour. • (I didn’t even know milk has a nose!)

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Sniffing the carton cautiously, the milk didn’t smell sour.

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Sniffing the carton cautiously, the milk didn’t smell sour. • Sniffing the carton cautiously, I didn’t think the milk smelled sour.

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Can you find the misplaced or dangling modifier and

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Can you find the misplaced or dangling modifier and correct the sentence. • Maggie found a sweater that had never been worn in the thrift store. • (Where HAD it been worn? ? ? )

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Maggie found a sweater that had never been worn

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers • Maggie found a sweater that had never been worn in the thrift store. • In the thrift store, Maggie found a sweater that had never been worn.