Mirrors 2 Curved Mirrors Lesson 7 Curved Mirrors

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Mirrors 2 – Curved Mirrors Lesson 7

Curved Mirrors with a single curvature find many uses in our homes and optical devices. Two types of curved mirrors Concave (converging) Convex (diverging).

Curved Mirrors

Curved Mirror Terminology Curved mirrors also obey the law of reflection. When parallel light rays strike a curved surface, each ray of light will reflect at a slightly different position. All of these rays eventually meet at a common point. The point where light rays meet, or appear to meet, is called the focal point, F

Curved Mirror Terminology Vertex (V)- The middle point of a curved mirror Centre of curvature (C) if the mirror were extended to be a circle/sphere, this point would be the centre.

Curved Mirror Terminology The principal axis (PA)is an imaginary line drawn through the vertex, perpendicular to the surface of the curved mirror.

Curved Mirror Terminology The distance between the vertex and the object is represented by do. The distance between the vertex and the image is di.

Curved Mirror Terminology The height of the object is ho, The height of the image is hi. The focal length, f, is the distance from the vertex to the focal point of a curved mirror.

If the object is farther away from the mirror than the focal point, the reflected rays form a real image. A real image is an image formed by light rays that converge at the location of the image.

Concave Mirrors A concave mirror, also called a converging mirror, has a surface that curves inward like a bowl The image formed by a concave mirror depends on how far the object is from the focal point of the mirror. The image can be larger or smaller than the object as well as inverted or upright and real or virtual

Concave Mirrors To explain the size, location and type of image, the acronym S. A. L. T is used. Size of image: compared to the object: same, larger, or smaller Attitude of image: oriented compared to object: upright or inverted Location of image: distance from mirror surface Type of image: real or virtual (A real image is formed when the light actually arrives at the image location. )No real image forms in a plane mirror.

Some Uses for Concave Mirrors Concave mirrors are specially designed to collect light and bring it to a single point.

Some Uses for Concave Mirrors Used in telescopes to collect light rays from a great distance and bring them together. flashlights, car headlights, dental examination lights, and other applications

Solar Ovens Device that uses light from the Sun as its energy source to heat or cook food. A solar oven uses a concave mirror to concentrate the Sun’s rays, converting light to heat through absorption if the interior of the oven is a dark colour, and using a clear cover so that the Sun’s rays can enter but very little heat can leave.

Drawing a Concave Mirror Ray Diagram 1. Use an upright arrow to represent the object 2. Show real rays as solid lines. 3. Use dashed lines to present virtual rays, which are rays that only appear to exist behind the mirror.

Steps 1. Draw a line from the top of the object straight (parallel to the PA) to the mirror surface. Then draw a line from there through the focal point. 2. Draw a line between the top of the object, the focal point and the mirror. At the point where the ray hits the mirror draw a straight line (parallel to the PA) away from the mirror. 3. Draw a line that goes from center of

Images formed by Concave Mirrors - Image in front of F STEP 12 STEP 3 S = Larger A = Upright L = Behind Mirror T = Virtual

Concave Mirror – Image behind C STEP 12 STEP 3 S. Smaller A. than object Inverted L. between T. Real C and F

Summary of Images in a Concave Mirror

Convex Mirrors A mirror with a surface curved outward is a convex mirror, also called a diverging mirror A convex mirror spreads out the rays.

Uses for Convex Mirrors Because convex mirrors allow you to see more than plane mirrors, they are often used for security in stores as well as rear-view mirrors in cars.

Images Formed by Convex Mirrors All images in a convex mirror are virtual. The reflected light rays never meet and the image appears to come from behind the mirror.

Drawing a Convex Mirror Ray Diagram Steps Draw a line from the top of the object straight across (parallel to the principle axis) to the mirror. Then draw a dotted line from there to the focal point. This line is also drawn as a solid line on the outside of mirror as it moves away from the mirror surface. 2. Draw a line from the top of the object to the center of curvature. Once the line reaches the mirror it becomes dotted. 3. Draw a line from the top of the object to the vertex. The reflected ray will leave the mirror at the same angle as the incident ray angle. Extend the reflected ray as a dotted line behind the mirror The point at which all the lines meet is where the top of the 1.

Images formed by Convex Mirrors STEP 12 STEP 3 S = Smaller A = Upright L = Behind Mirror T = Virtual

More Examples: Concave Mirror – Image in between F and C STEP 1 2 STEP 3 S = Larger A = Inverted L = Behind C T = Real

More Examples : Concave Mirror – Image at C STEP 12 STEP 3 S. Same size as the A. Inverted L. In front of Object Mirror T. Real

Curved Mirror Worksheet Work on and hand in