- Slides: 36
Milady Standard Cosmetology Haircoloring © 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning
Why People Color Their Hair • Cover up or blend gray (unpigmented) hair. • Enhance an existing haircolor. • Create a fashion statement or statement of selfexpression. • Correct unwanted tones in hair caused by environmental exposure such as sun or chlorine. • Accentuate a haircut.
Hair Facts Hair Structure • Three major components: – Cuticle: Outermost layer of hair. – Cortex: Middle layer, gives hair the majority of its strength and elasticity. – Medulla: Innermost layer of hair.
Hair Facts Texture • Fine hair takes color faster and can look darker. • Medium-textured hair has an average reaction to haircolor. • Coarse-textured hair can take longer to process.
Hair Facts Density/Porosity • Density must be taken into account when applying haircolor to ensure proper coverage. • Low porosity (resistant): Cuticle is tight. • Average porosity: Cuticle is slightly raised. • High porosity: Cuticle is lifted.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone • Eumelanin: Melanin that • Pheomelanin: Melanin lends black and brown that gives blond and red colors to hair. • Mixed melanin: • Contributing pigment: Combination of natural Also undertone; varying hair color that contains degrees of warmth both pheomelanin and exposed during a eumelanin. permanent color or lightening process.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone The Level System • Level: Unit of measurement used to identify lightness or darkness of a color. • Level system: Used by colorists to determine lightness or darkness of a hair color.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Identifying Natural Level • First step in performing a haircolor service. • Most valuable tool is the color wheel. • Haircolor swatch books also provide a visual representation.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Gray Hair • Loss of pigment increases as a person ages, but few people become completely gray. • Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Color Theory • Base color: Predominant tone of a color. • Law of color: System for understanding color relationships. – – Primary colors Secondary colors Tertiary colors Complementary colors
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone or Hue of Color • Tone: Also hue; balance of color. • The tone or hue answers the question of which color to use based on the client’s desired results. • Tones can be described as warm, cool, or neutral. • Intensity: Refers to strength of a color.
Types of Haircolor • Haircoloring products generally fall into two categories: nonoxidative and oxidative. • Classifications of oxidative haircolor are demipermanent and permanent.
Types of Haircolor Temporary Haircolor • Temporary haircolor: Nonpermanent color whose large pigment molecules prevent penetration of the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that may be removed by shampooing.
Types of Haircolor Semipermanent Haircolor • Semipermanent haircolor: No-lift deposit-only nonoxidation haircolor. • Demipermanent haircolor: Also no-lift deposit-only color; formulated to deposit but not lighten color.
Types of Haircolor Permanent Haircolor • Permanent haircolors: Lighten and deposit color at the same time in a single process. • Soap cap: Equal parts prepared permanent color mixture and shampoo used during last five minutes of a haircolor service.
Types of Haircolor Natural and Metallic Haircolors • Natural haircolors: Also vegetable haircolors; colors obtained from the leaves or bark of plants. – Color result tends to be weak. – Process tends to be lengthy and messy. • Metallic haircolors: Also gradual haircolors; haircolors containing metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance.
Types of Haircolor Hydrogen Peroxide Developers • Hydrogen peroxide • Developers: Also developer: Oxidizing oxidizing agents or agent that supplies catalysts; have a p. H necessary oxygen gas between 2. 5 and 4. 5. to develop color • Volume: Measures molecules and create concentration and a change in natural strength of hydrogen hair color. peroxide.
Types of Haircolor Lighteners • Lighteners: Chemical compounds that lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment.
Consultation Release Statement • Haircolor consultation is the most critical part of the color service. • Release statement: Explains to clients that there is a risk involved in any chemical service.
Haircolor Formulation Mixing Permanent Colors/Patch Test • Permanent color methods: – Applicator – Brush and bowl • Patch test: Also predisposition test; test for identifying possible allergy in a client.
Haircolor Applications Preliminary Strand Test/Temporary Colors • Strand test: Determines how hair will react to color formula and how long formula should be left on hair. • Many methods of applying a temporary color, depending on the product used. • Apply colored gels, mousses, foams, or sprays at your workstation after client has been shampooed.
Haircolor Applications Semipermanent/Demipermanent Haircolors • Semipermanent • Demipermanent colors do not contain haircolor introduces oxidizers necessary to clients to a color lift; they only deposit service and enhance color and do not natural hair color in lighten color. one easy step.
Haircolor Applications Single Process/Double Process Permanent Color • Single-process • Hair lightening: Also haircoloring: Lightens bleaching or and deposits color in decolorizing; chemical a single application. process of diffusion of natural hair color • Virgin application: pigment or artificial Refers to first time haircolor from hair is colored. • Prelightening: First step of double-process haircoloring.
Using Lighteners On-the-Scalp/Powdered Off-the-Scalp Lighteners • On-the-scalp lighteners: Lighteners used directly on scalp by mixing lightener with activators. • Off-the-scalp lighteners: Also quick lighteners; powdered lighteners that cannot be used directly on the scalp.
Using Lighteners Time Factors • Darker hair takes • Strength of lightening longer to lighten. product affects the speed and amount of • Porous hair lightens lightening. faster than nonporous. • Heat leads to faster • More red in natural lightening. color makes pale blond more difficult to achieve.
Using Lighteners Preliminary Strand Test/Lightener Retouch • Perform a preliminary strand test prior to lightening in order to determine processing time, condition of hair after lightening, and end results. • New growth: Part of hair shaft between scalp and previously colored hair. • When performing a retouch, always lighten the new growth first.
Using Toners Toner Application • Toners require a double-process application: – Application of lightener – Application of toner • Administer a patch test for allergies or other sensitivities twenty-four to fortyeight hours before each toner application.
Special Effects Haircoloring • Special effects haircoloring: Refers to any technique that involves partial lightening or coloring. – Highlighting – Reverse highlighting (lowlighting)
Special Effects Haircoloring Cap Technique/Foil Technique • Cap technique • Foil technique – Slicing – Weaving
Special Effects Haircoloring Baliage Technique/Highlighting Shampoos • Baliage (free-form) technique • Highlighting shampoo colors: Prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide, and shampoo.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Gray Hair • Gray hair accepts the level of the color applied. • Formulate at a Level 7 medium-blond and deeper for best gray coverage.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Rules for Effective Color Correction/Damaged Hair • Rules: – Remain calm. – Determine the nature of the problem. – Determine what caused the problem. – Develop a solution. – Always take one step at a time. – Never guarantee an exact result. – Always strand test for accuracy. • Damaged hair: – – – Rough texture Overporous condition Brittle and dry to touch Susceptible to breakage No elasticity Becomes spongy and matted when wet – Color fades too quickly or grabs too dark
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Fillers • Fillers: Used to equalize porosity. • Conditioner fillers: Used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair. • Color fillers: Equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Haircolor Tips for Redheads/Brunettes/Blonds • Redheads: – To create warm coppery reds, use a red-orange base color. – To create hot fiery reds, use red-violet or true red colors. • Brunettes: – Use a cool blue base to avoid orange or brassy tones. • Blonds: – Double-process blonding is the best way to obtain pale blond results.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Common Haircolor Solutions • If hair appears dull and faded, mix a demipermanent haircolor in the same tonal family as the haircolor formula. • To correct overlight haircolor, apply a demipermanent color one to two levels darker than the previous formula. • Use a haircolor remover in cases where the hair is too dark because of buildup or formulation. • Restoring a client’s blond hair back to its natural darker color can be tricky.
Haircoloring Safety Precautions • Perform a patch test. • Check for scalp abrasions. • Do not brush hair prior to applying color. • Follow manufacturer’s instructions. • Use proper draping. • Use cleaned and disinfected applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels. • Perform a strand test. • Use an applicator bottle or bowl for color mixing. • Do not mix haircolor until you are ready to use it. • Wear gloves. • Protect client’s eyes. • Do not overlap during a haircolor retouch. • Use mild shampoo. • Wash hands.