Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution began in 1911

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Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution

 The Mexican Revolution began in 1911 when the top three groups in the

The Mexican Revolution began in 1911 when the top three groups in the chart banded together to overthrow Profirio Diaz. Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa are the famous names associated with this but they were both killed (1919/1923). While it’s usually considered over around 1920, there were reforms still being worked on into the 1920 s and 1930 s.

Rural Mestizo and Indian Peasants What did they want? LAND (95% of peasants were

Rural Mestizo and Indian Peasants What did they want? LAND (95% of peasants were landless), better lives to get out of poverty How successful was this by the end? Constitution of 1917 broke up large estates. Of the 75 million acres of land eventually distributed, only 1% was by 1920, 33% was between 1920 -1934, and 66% was with Cardenas by 1940. It would take until the 1930 s for the government to launch a massive effort to combat literacy – setting up schools and libraries

Peasants who were Urban Workers What did they want? Better wages in the factories

Peasants who were Urban Workers What did they want? Better wages in the factories and mines where they worked How successful was this by the end? Constitution of 1917 set a minimum wage and allowed workers’ the right to strike. Women earned the same as a man with the same job.

Urban Middle Class What did they want? Democratic government How successful was this by

Urban Middle Class What did they want? Democratic government How successful was this by the end? Mexico remained in authoritarian hands through assassinations and the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) until the free election in 2000

Elites What did they want? Control over the resources under them instead of by

Elites What did they want? Control over the resources under them instead of by foreign companies How successful was this by the end? Constitution of 1917 restricted foreigners owning land allowed nationalization of the government takeover of natural resources

 Mexico became the first Latin American nation to pursue real social and economic

Mexico became the first Latin American nation to pursue real social and economic reforms for the majority of its people

The Great Migration

The Great Migration

aka The Greater Atlantic Migration In the 70 years from 1850 -1920, over 100

aka The Greater Atlantic Migration In the 70 years from 1850 -1920, over 100 million people migrated Some 60 million were European, half went to the US, others went mainly to the Americas (like Argentina and Brazil) but also to the Pacific, Australia, Africa, and Asia Over 40 million Chinese, Indian, Japanese and other Asians migrated to the Americas, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

Empire and Migration Same era saw several powerful governments in European countries invade, annex

Empire and Migration Same era saw several powerful governments in European countries invade, annex and take control of lands in Asia and Africa. Britain, France, Portugal, Germany, Russia, Japan, the US and Italy each expanded its imperial territories Empire building and migration were two major processes through which European societies (and societies based on European models) came to dominate the world in the 19 th and 20 th centuries Britain exemplified this in “settler colonies” – large numbers migrated from their home countries to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, parts of southern Africa. Expansion of industrialization was important in both migration and empire Also, steamships, railroads and canals require labor, make transportation easier, population explosion, improvements in medicine

Foreign Investment Unstable governments in Latin America and then creole elites who wanted to

Foreign Investment Unstable governments in Latin America and then creole elites who wanted to keep foreign investment out, restricted access from independence to 1870; . After 1870, British capital began to flow to Latin America. The US was slower due to its Civil War and reconstruction period. Neocolonialism (or economic domination) was the price Latin America paid for its economic development.

For example: British and American financing backed the development of tin, copper, and gold

For example: British and American financing backed the development of tin, copper, and gold mining in Mexico British financiers built Argentina’s railroads, meatpacking industry, and utilities British businessmen in Chile developed the copper and nitrate industries When overproduction of coffee led to a drop in prices in 1906 impacting Brazil which produced 76% of the world’s supply, a commission of British, American, German and French bankers rescued the Brazilian government