TAHAPAN PEMBANGUNAN To illustrate this concept, let us consider project-environment interactions for a thermal power plant proposed near a coastal area. In this case, the activity component description may take a form such as: [Thermal Power Project] = (site acquisition), (site clearance), (construction of plant including utilities), (movement of equipment and construction materials), (erection and commissioning trials), (power generation), (fuel transport), (fuel rejection), (waste heat release), (waste emission release), (solid waste release), (employment), (power distribution), (power tripping and plant shutdown and start up). [Coastal Environment] = (coastal water quality), (marine life, e. g. , fisheries), (coastal recreational use), (mangroves), (terrestrial vegetation), (coastal air quality), (land use and landform), (employment), (per capita income), (societal risk). The typical impact interaction elements of the activities and components listed above are essentially (Impact)ji elements. An activity such as waste emission release may be associated with the environmental component of coastal air quality to speculate an impact. Another example could be that of the activity of waste heat release, which may be associated with an impact on the environmental components of coastal water
CONTOH LOKASI PELINGKUPAN
PROSES PELINGKUPAN Review all written materials on the purpose, need, or prospectus for the project; perform field reconnaissance of the desired site or sites for the project; interview local residents and affected communities that use resources; consult with other agencies that have expertise, jurisdiction, or influence on the decision to approve, design, or site a project; consult with local or regional scientists at colleges, universities, institutes, or field stations; visit local political leaders where the project may be sited.
Metode Checklist Checklists serve as reminder of all possible relationships and impacts, out of which a set tailored for the specific assignment may be chosen. It is always possible that an important local factor may be left out of the generic checklists that appear in EIA manuals. Checklists are designed to establish whether a proposed project is likely to have negative impacts on the environment. For such projects, all possible negative impacts must be assessed in detail in relation to the project's positive impacts. This is accomplished in the next steps of the EIA. The checklists help people in key positions to become more aware of what they should be looking for when assessing a proposed project. They may also help to develop a higher degree of awareness of the environmental aspects of a project. Checklists can be classified into descriptive and weightscaling categories
Descriptive Checklists The purpose of a descriptive checklist is to provide a list of important issues for the purpose of identification and scoping Weighted-Scale Checklists Weighted-scale checklists are used to: recognize the relative differences between the importance of environmental issues
Environmentally significant issues for a power development project Expropriation of land which negatively affects aquatic habitat for biota, aquaculture, fishing, recreation, domestic/industrial water use, irrigation, recreation, water transportation. Construction activities of facilities and transmission corridors which negatively affect aquatic habitat, water quality, aquaculture, domestic/ industrial water use, recreation due to chemical contamination, shoreline changes (e. g. , riparian vegetation removal, retaining walls, diking), and sedimentation. Effects of discharge of SO 2 NOx, TSP (total suspended particles) on air quality. Noise and flying rock from blasting and drilling operations. Increased ship traffic for coal transport. Effects of noise from boiler operation, gas turbines, and cooling towers on livestock. Social problems associated with integration of migrant construction workers with local community. Use of herbicides for maintenance of transmission corridors can negatively affect surface and groundwater quality. Disruption of crop farming by construction of transmission lines. Effects of SO 2 emissions on crop farming. Loss of forest area due to construction of transmission lines. Illegal logging from access roads for power developments. Effects of transmission line networks on animal and plant diversity. Effects of thermal discharge on aquatic ecosystem. Disposal and indiscriminate dumping of construction waste materials. Effects of channel dredging for ship traffic on aquatic habitat. Effects of earthworks on dust production. Emergency and disaster response (e. g. , forest fire, earthquake) at power plants. Dams and impoundments in rivers cause major changes to riverine ecosystems, which can significantly affect water quality, habitat for aquatic biota, aquatic resources harvesting (e. g. , fishing, aquaculture), recreation, domestic/industrial water use, water transportation, local water table levels and groundwater flow. Regulated flows and lake (impoundment) levels which affect habitat for aquatic and terrestrial biota, fishing, navigation, recreation, domestic/ industrial water use. Impounded water provides habitat for vectors that carry disease. Effects of cooling water withdrawal (entrainment and impingement) for power plants on aquatic life. Effects of fuel storage on dust and safety of employees and local community. Risk of spills or accidents associated with fuel transport. Fate and effects of leachates of disposed sludge in landfills. Effects of groundwater and surface water consumption (pumping) on water supply and local ecosystems. Treatment and disposal of sewage generated at the power plant site.
Advantages of the Checklist Method Checklists provide all possible relationships and impacts, out of which a set tailored for the specific assignment may be chosen. Checklists help people in responsible positions to become more aware of what they should be looking for when assessing a proposed project. Checklists may also help to produce a higher degree of awareness of the environmental aspects of a project. Quantification of impacts is possible using the weighted-scale method.
Diadvatages of Checklist Limitations of the Checklist Method Descriptive checklists may be exhaustive, including the impacts during the various stages of the project. However, no quantitative information is provided regarding magnitude and degree of impact. Another important drawback of this method is the way it attempts to compartmentalize the environment. Environmental systems comprise a complex web of interrelated parts, often incorporating feedback loops. This fact is not included in the weighted checklists. This method should be therefore used with some caution. Its quantitative features may be used to distinguish between alternatives and so should be used only when a comparison needs a quantitative resolution. The main drawback of the checklist method is the inability to relate individual activities to environmental components affected by these activities
Metode Matrix Matrices relate activities to environmental components so that the box at each intersection can be used to indicate a possible impact. The term "matrix" does not have any mathematical implication, but is merely a style of presentation. The matrix can be used to identify impacts by systematically checking each development activity against each environmental component. If it was thought that a particular development activity was to affect an environmental component, a mark is placed in the cell at the intersection of the activity and the environmental component. A matrix analysis can systematically identify potentially important effects demanding more
Jenis-jenis matrik There are three types of commonly used matrices: descriptive matrices; symbolic and presentation matrices; scaled/weighted or numeric matrices.
Simple Leopold Matrik Numeric and Scaled Matrices 4. 3. 3. 1 Simple Numeric Matrix Simple numeric matrices are useful to derive facts to assist in showing the degree of impact or help in making a comparision. Numeric, ordinal, and interval scaled evaluations are given by numerical scores. Leopold et al. (1971) use a scale of 1 to 10 to score two impact attributes - significance and importance. Fischer and Davies use one score on a scale of -5 to +5 to indicate both positive and negative degrees of impact. An interscaled impact matrix has been attempted by Ross (discussed under mathematical matrices).
Scaled Matrik Scaled Matrices Weighted-scale matrices typically use a scale of 1 to 10 to score two impact attributes, significance and importance. One of the most popular scaled matrices is the "Leopold matrix" named after Dr Luna Leopold of the US Geological Survey who developed it in the early 1970 s.
Adv Matrix It presents an easily understood summary of a large number of primary impacts. It is a generalized but well defined approach, forcing a comprehensive consideration of environmental components and primary impacts. It is an easily performed process which can specify the overall character of a project early in the design phase. In an extended form, the method can include information about many impact attributes, and clarify the assumptions supporting the assessments. Matrices have low resource requirements
Disadvantages Scaling the multitude of scores contained in a matrix is also not a tractable proposition, as the ability to independently replicate the method is undermined by a dependence on highly subjective judgments. The impact characterization step of the matrix involves subjective prediction as well as assessment. There is little opportunity for quantification.
Network (Diagram) Networks Investigation of higher order linkages in two dimensions can be carried out by using directional diagrams called networks. Networks, although widely discussed in the EIA literature, have not been used as extensively
Adv Presentation matrices can only clearly show the primary or first-order impacts within any particular activity-component framework. It is possible, however, to investigate higher order linkages in two dimensions by using networks. It is possible to translate networks into mathematical models for a more quantitative judgement. The network method structures the relationships implied in qualitative simulations
Disadvantages of Network Method Limitations of the Network Method One of the main limitations of the network method is that since impacts are not scored in any quantitative way, the comparison of project alternatives is not readily achieved. Spatial representation of impacts is not possible.
Overlay Overlays The overlay approach to impact assessment involves the use of a series of transparencies to identify, predict, assign relative significance to, and communicate impacts in a geographical reference frame larger in scale than a localized action would require. The approach has been employed for selecting highway corridors, for evaluating development options in coastal areas, and in numerous other applications. The Mc. Harg overlay is based on a set of transparent maps, each of which represents the spatial variation of an environmental parameter (e. g. , susceptibility to erosion or recreational value). The maps are shaded to show three degrees of parameter compatibility with the proposed project. A composite picture of the overall social cost of affecting any particular area is approximated by superimposing all the transparent maps. Any number of project alternatives can be located on the final map to investigate the degree of associated impacts. The validity of the analysis is related to the type and number of parameters chosen. For a readable composite map, the number of parameters in a transparency overlay is limited to about 10 (Munn, 1979). Parameter maps present data in a summarized and easily interpreted form, but are unable to reflect the possibility of secondary impacts. They also rely heavily on cartographic skills and their effectiveness depends to a large degree on cartographic execution.
Metode Adhoc Ad hoc methods are not really methods as they do not structure the problem so it is more amenable to systematic analysis. A good example of an ad hoc method is a team of experts assembled for a short time to conduct an EIA. Each expert's conclusions are based on a unique combination of experience, training
Checklist There are four general types of checklists: 1. Simple Checklist: a list of environmental parameters with no guidelines on how they are to be measured and interpreted. 2. Descriptive Checklist: includes an identification of environmental parameters and guidelines on how to measure data on particular parameters. 3. Scaling Checklist: similar to a descriptive checklist, but with additional information on subjective scaling of the parameters. 4. Scaling Weighting Checklist: similar to a scaling checklist, with additional information for the subjective evaluation of each parameter with respect to all the other parameters.