Methods of Argument vs Types of Argument LOGOS

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Methods of Argument vs. (? )Types of Argument ? LOGOS ? Dialectic who? LOGOS=VOICE=SPEECH=STUDY=LOGICAL=RATIONAL=REASON

Methods of Argument vs. (? )Types of Argument ? LOGOS ? Dialectic who? LOGOS=VOICE=SPEECH=STUDY=LOGICAL=RATIONAL=REASON Analogy? =? Example Deduction = enthymeme? PREMISE? MURKY

GOAL: TOPIC: CLARITY Logical Proofs (aka Logical Arguments)

GOAL: TOPIC: CLARITY Logical Proofs (aka Logical Arguments)

GOAL: TOPIC: CLARITY Logical Proofs (aka Logical Arguments) DEFINITION: • Arguments which are found

GOAL: TOPIC: CLARITY Logical Proofs (aka Logical Arguments) DEFINITION: • Arguments which are found in the issue itself. (not ethos, not pathos) • Arguments which appeal to audience’s reason.

GOAL: TOPIC: CLARITY Logical Proofs THE PLAN: • the almighty PREMISE – What it

GOAL: TOPIC: CLARITY Logical Proofs THE PLAN: • the almighty PREMISE – What it is & How it works – The Methods of Logical Reasoning • Brief focus on Probability – the premise in action • Deduction & Induction • Rhetorical Reasoning: Practically Applied – Identify & Analyze

the almighty PREMISE What it is: Any statement assumed before the argument begins. How

the almighty PREMISE What it is: Any statement assumed before the argument begins. How it works: (premise + premise…= conclusion)

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning: 1. Scientific Demo. The premise is… 1. …true,

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning: 1. Scientific Demo. The premise is… 1. …true, accepted by experts as true; no further support needed.

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning: 1. Scientific Demo. 2. Dialectic The premise is…

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning: 1. Scientific Demo. 2. Dialectic The premise is… 1. …true, accepted by experts as true; no further support needed 2. …possibly true; accepted by people who are supposed to be especially wise.

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning 1. Scientific Demonstration 2. Dialectical 3. False/Contentious The

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning 1. Scientific Demonstration 2. Dialectical 3. False/Contentious The premise is… 1. 2. …true, accepted by experts as true, no further support needed …possibly true; accepted by people who are supposed to be especially wise. 3. …a mistake or lie; only appears to be true.

STOP “Rhetoricians are ethically obligated to avoid using premises that are not true. ”

STOP “Rhetoricians are ethically obligated to avoid using premises that are not true. ”

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning The premise is… 1. Scientific Demonstration 1. 2.

the almighty PREMISE Methods of Reasoning The premise is… 1. Scientific Demonstration 1. 2. Dialectical 2. 3. False/Contentious 3. 4. Rhetorical Reasoning …true, accepted by experts as true; no further support needed …possibly true; accepted by people who are supposed to be especially wise. …a mistakes or Lie; only appears to be true. 4. … probably TRUE …drawn from shared beliefs in community. …ALWAYS involves human action or belief.

Focus: Probability A statement is probable if … … it involves what usually happens.

Focus: Probability A statement is probable if … … it involves what usually happens. … it is highly likely. … nothing in the statement works against its probability. ~Quintilian

the PREMISE in action • Deduction: general specific How it works: major premise +

the PREMISE in action • Deduction: general specific How it works: major premise + minor premise = conclusion Politicians are liars + Bob is a politician = Bob is a liar.

the PREMISE in action • Induction: specific general How it works: particular premise +

the PREMISE in action • Induction: specific general How it works: particular premise + particular premise = conclusion Mom lies about her age + Grandma lies about her age = All women lie about their ages.

Rhetorical Reasoning: Identify & Analyze 1. What is the conclusion? 2. What are the

Rhetorical Reasoning: Identify & Analyze 1. What is the conclusion? 2. What are the premises? Are they probable? 3. What commonly accepted beliefs are the premises based on? 4. Does the premise deal with human actions and/or beliefs? How? 5. Are they using deductive or inductive reasoning?