Metabolism Energy of Life Metabolic Pathways Anabolic Pathways

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Metabolism Energy of Life

Metabolism Energy of Life

Metabolic Pathways Anabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways

Metabolic Pathways Anabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Potential Energy

Laws of Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics

First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be transferred or transformed but it cannot be

First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be transferred or transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed

Second Law of Thermodynamics Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the

Second Law of Thermodynamics Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the Universe

Free Energy J. Willard Gibbs (1839 -1903) Yale Professor Mathematical physics Gibbs Equation DG

Free Energy J. Willard Gibbs (1839 -1903) Yale Professor Mathematical physics Gibbs Equation DG = DH – TDS DG – Change in Free energy DH – Change in Total energy (Enthalpy) T – Absolute temperature in Kelvin DS – Change in Entropy

Free Energy and Metabolism

Free Energy and Metabolism

Free Energy and Metabolism Exergonic Reactions Release of energy -DG Spontaneous Downhill More energy

Free Energy and Metabolism Exergonic Reactions Release of energy -DG Spontaneous Downhill More energy in reactants than in products Ex. Cellular Respiration • -686 kcal/mol Ex. ATP ADP + P • -7. 3 kcal/mol Endergonic Reactions Absorbs energy +DG Nonspontaneous Uphill More energy in products than in reactants Ex. Photosynthesis • +686 kcal/mol Ex. ADP + P ATP • +7. 3 kcal/mol

Adenosine Triphosphate

Adenosine Triphosphate

Energy Coupling using ATP hydrolysis

Energy Coupling using ATP hydrolysis

How ATP Performs Work

How ATP Performs Work

The ATP Cycle

The ATP Cycle

Enzymes Biological Catalyst Speed up metabolic reactions by lowering the energy of activation

Enzymes Biological Catalyst Speed up metabolic reactions by lowering the energy of activation

Exergonic Reaction

Exergonic Reaction

Exergonic Reaction with Enzyme

Exergonic Reaction with Enzyme

Enzymes Substrate Specific Active Site Induced Fit Recycled

Enzymes Substrate Specific Active Site Induced Fit Recycled

Enzymes Cofactors Coenzymes

Enzymes Cofactors Coenzymes

Enzymes Inhibitors Competitive Noncompetitive

Enzymes Inhibitors Competitive Noncompetitive

Enzymes Allosteric Sites Cooperativity

Enzymes Allosteric Sites Cooperativity

Feedback Inhibition Pathway switched off

Feedback Inhibition Pathway switched off