MESLEK NGLZCE I KISIM 9 1 Human Geography

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MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I KISIM 9 1

MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I KISIM 9 1

Human Geography • Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the

Human Geography • Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses the human, political, cultural, social, and economic aspects. • BRANCH: DAL • PATTERN: ÖRÜNTÜ • PROCESS: SÜREÇ • SHAPE: BİÇİM • ENCOMPASS: KUŞATMAK: • ASPECT: HAL-GÖRÜNÜŞ 2

Integrated geography • Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions

Integrated geography • Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. • DESCRIPTION: TANIM • SPATIAL: MEKANSAL • INTERACTION: ETKİLEŞİM • REQUIRE: İHTİYAÇ DUYMAK • ASPECT: HAL GÖRÜNÜŞ • CONCEPTUALIZE: 3

Integrated geography • Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and

Integrated geography • Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. • EMERGE: ORTAYA ÇIKMAK • BRIDGE: KÖPRÜ • SUB-FIELD: ALT SAHA 4

Integrated geography • Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a

Integrated geography • Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management, sustainability, and political ecology. • • GLOBALIZATION: KÜRESELLEŞME FURTHERMORE: DAHASI APPROACH: YAKLAŞIM DYNAMIC: DİNAMİK AREA: SAHA EMERGENCY: ACİLİYET SUSTAINABILITY: SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİRLİK 5

policy • A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and

policy • A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. • • • DELIBERATE: İNCELİKLİ GUIDE: REHBER OLMAK ACHIEVE: ELDE ETMEK RATIONAL: RASYONEL OUTCOME: ÇIKTI INTENT: NİYET IMPLEMENT: UYGULAMAK GOVERNANCE: YÖNETİŞİM ASSIST: YARDIMCI OLMAK ADOPT: ADAPTE OLMAK 6

policy • Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with

policy • Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result are often hard to test objectively, e. g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e. g. password policy • • SUBJECTIVE: SUBJEKTİF SENIOR: KIDEMLİ RELATIVE: GÖRECE MERIT: FAZİLET OBJECTIVELY: NESNEL OLARAK BALANCE: DENGE CONTRAST: ZIT PASSWORD: ŞİFRE 7

Public administration • Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an

Public administration • Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal. . . is to advance management and policies so that government can function. " • IMPLEMENTATION: UYGULAMA • PREPARE: HAZIRLAMAK • CIVIL SERVANT: MEMUR • INQUIRY: ARAŞTIRMAK • DIVERSE SCOPE: AYRI ALAN • FUNDAMENTAL: TEMEL • GOAL: AMAÇ • FUNCTION: İŞLEMEK 8

Public administration • Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the

Public administration • Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies • • • VARIOUS: ÇEŞİTLİ OFFER: TEKLİF ETMEK TRANSLATION: ÇEVİRİ REALITY: GERÇEKLİK CITIZEN: VATANDAŞ ANALYSIS: ANALİZ INPUT: GİRDİ NECESSARY: GEREKLİ PRODUCE: ÜRETMEK ALTERNATIVE: ALTERNATİF 9

History of Public management • In the US, civil servants and academics such as

History of Public management • In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880 s, moving public administration into academia. • US: AMERİKA BİRLEŞİK DEV. • ACADEMIC: AKADEMİSYEN • PROMOTE: YÜKSELTMEK • REFORM: DÜZENLEME-REFORM • MOVE: HAREKET ETMEK • ACADEMIA: AKADEMİK CAMİA 10

History of Public management • However, "until the mid-20 th century and the dissemination

History of Public management • However, "until the mid-20 th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration. " • The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting, and ethics. • • • MID-: ORTALARI-EKDISSEMINATION: YAYMA SOCIOLOGIST: SOSYOLOG INTEREST: ÇIKAR BUREAUCRACY: BÜROKRASİ PROPOSAL: TEKLİF PILLAR: SÜTUN INCLUDING: İÇİNE ALAN STATISTICS: İSTATİSTİK BUDGETING: BÜTÇELEME ETHICS: AHLAK-ETİK 11

Business administration • The administration of a business includes the performance or management of

Business administration • The administration of a business includes the performance or management of business operations and decision making, as well as the efficient organization of people and other resources, to direct activities toward common goals and objectives. • INCLUDE: DAHİL ETMEK • PERFORMANCE: PERFORMANS • DECISION: KARAR • PEOPLE: HALK-İNSANLAR • RESOURCE: KAYNAK • TOWARD: - KARŞI • COMMON: MÜŞTEREK • GOAL: HEDEF 12

Business administration • In general, administration refers to the broader management function, including the

Business administration • In general, administration refers to the broader management function, including the associated finance, personnel and MIS services. In answering the question of what is business administration, it is important to understand the history of the topic. • ASSOCIATED: İLİŞKİLİ • FINANCE: FİNANS • QUESTION: SORU • UNDERSTAND: ANLAMAK • TOPIC: KONU • BROADER: DAHA GENİŞ • REFER TO: ATFETMEK 13

History of business administration • Higher education in the United States has very deep

History of business administration • Higher education in the United States has very deep roots. The history of business administration be traced back to 1911 and Fredrerick Winslow Taylor. • TRACE BACK: KÖKENİ TARAMAK • DEEP: DERİN • ROOT: KÖK • EDUCATION: EĞİTİM 14

History of business administration • In 1911 Taylor published The Principles of Scientific Managment.

History of business administration • In 1911 Taylor published The Principles of Scientific Managment. Why is this important? The publication encouraged managers to view employees as specialized and replaceable. In other words, he believed that managers should focus on training workers to reduce inefficiency and to work to grow a corporation. This was a major shift in thinking. • • • • ENCOURAGE: CESARETLENDİRMEK SPECIALIZE: ÖZELLEŞTİRMEK TRAINING: EĞİTİM REDUCE: AZALTMAK INEFFICIENCY: VERİMSİZLİK GROW: BÜYÜTMEK-BÜYÜMEK CORPORATION: KURUM MAJOR: BAŞLICA SHIFT: DEĞİŞİM FOCUS ON: ODAKLANMAK BELIEVE: İNANMAK REPLACEABLE: YERİ DOLDURULABİLİR VIEW: FİKİR-GÖRÜŞ 15

History of business administration • In 1923 Alfred P Sloan became president of GM.

History of business administration • In 1923 Alfred P Sloan became president of GM. As president, he introduced the concept of managing by central executive committe and decentralized each operating division. By giving each division autonomy, they were allowed to grow the business in new ways. This business structure was then emulated by other corporations throught the rest of the century. The National Research Council also contributed to the history of business administration In 1927. • • • COMMITTEE: KOMİTE DIVISION: BÖLÜM AUTONOMY: OTONOMİ ALLOW: İZİN VERMEK GROW: YETİŞTİRMEKEMULATE: ÖZENMEK REST: GERİ KALAN CONTRIBUTE: KATKI SAĞLAMAK CORPORATION: BİRLİKTELİK 16

History of business administration • That year, the Council co-funded the 'Hawthorne Experiments'. The

History of business administration • That year, the Council co-funded the 'Hawthorne Experiments'. The intent of these experiments was to determine what motivated workers. In an era where companies where changing the way they were thinking of employees, understanding worker motivation was an attempt to further increase efficiency. The study determined that workers are not only motivated by financial gain and good working conditions. It was also important to workers that they feel appreciated and were interested in their work. • • • INTENT: NİYET EXPERIMENT: DENEY CO-FUNDED: EŞ SERMAYELİ MOTIVATE: MOTİVE ETMEK ERA: ÇAĞ ATTEMPT: TEŞEBBÜS ETMEK CONDITION: KONUM APPRECIATE: TAKDİR ETMEK EFFICIENCY: VERİM FURTHER: ÖTE 17

History of business administration • In 1938 Hewlet-Packard was formed. Why is this important

History of business administration • In 1938 Hewlet-Packard was formed. Why is this important you ask? Some years later, HP introduced the supervisory style of wandering around the offices and chatting with employees. The expected benefit here was to make the boss more approachable and connected to employees. It is believed that this style increases trust, accountability, morale and productivity. SUPERVISORY: DENETİM WANDERING : GEZİCİ CHATTING WITH : KONUŞMAK BENEFIT: FAYDA APPROACHABLE: YAKLAŞILABİLİR TRUST: GÜVEN ACCOUNTABILITY: HESAP VEREBİLİRLİK • MORALE : AHLAK • PRODUCTIVITY: VERİMLİLİK • • 18

History of business administration • The 1950 s brought the concept of 'quality management'.

History of business administration • The 1950 s brought the concept of 'quality management'. Founded by W Edwards Deming, this concept contains 14 major points. Each of the points were intended to create a more efficient workplace. Points included concepts such as: • Industries and economics are always changing • Communicate to all employees the purpose of the company • On the job training • Focus on morale and trust • Maybe obvious to us in our time, but these concepts were quite new when introduced by Deming. • • • QUALITY: NİTELİK INTEND: NİYET ETMEK INCLUDE: İÇERMEK CONCEPT: KAVRAM COMMUNICATE: İLETİŞİM KURMAK QUITE: EPEYCE INTRODUCE: TANIŞTIRMAK CONTAIN: YER VERMEK İÇERMEK CREATE: YARATMAK 19

History of business administration • The Doctorine of Transformational Leadership made it's way onto

History of business administration • The Doctorine of Transformational Leadership made it's way onto the scene in 1978. Created by James Mac. Gregor Burns, the works urged leaders to think about how companies and employees could benefit society. This was followed up by the concept of Servent Leadership in 1990. This main idea of this concept was that the main role of a leader is to keep employees happy. • DOCTORINE: DOKTRİN • IDEA: FİKİR • LEADER: LİDER • KEEP: MUHAFAZA ETMEK • HAPPY: MUTLU • URGE: DÜRTMEK • SCENE: SAHNE • FOLLOW UP: TAKİP ETMEK 20

Economics • Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption

Economics • Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. • Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. • DISTRIBUTION: DAĞITIM • CONSUMPTION: TÜKETİM • BEHAVIOUR: DAVRANIŞ • INTERACTION: ETKİLEŞİM • AGENT: GEREÇ-ARACI • GOODS AND SERVICES: ÜRÜN VE HİZMETLER 21

Microeconomics • Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets,

Microeconomics • Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. • ANALYZE: ANALİZ ETMEK • MARKET: PİYASA-PAZAR • OUTCOME: ÇIKTI • INCLUDE: YER VERMEK İÇERMEK • HOUSEHOLD: HANE HALKI • FIRM: FİRMA • BUYER: MÜŞTERİ • SELLER: SATICI • ELEMENT: UNSUR 22

Macroeconomics • Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment)

Macroeconomics • Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies). • • • ENTIRE: BÜTÜN SAVING: TASARRUF AGGREGATE: KÜMELEŞMEK INFLATION: ENFLASYON MONETARY: PARASAL FISCAL: MALİ AFFECT: ETKİLEMEK ADDRESS: HİTAP ETMEK LABOUR: EMEK-İŞÇİ MEANING: ANLAMINA GELMEK 23

Macroeconomics • Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what

Macroeconomics • Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what is", and normative economics, advocating "what ought to be"; between economic theory and applied economics; between rational and behavioral economics; and between mainstream economics and heterodox economics. • NORMATIVE: NORMATİF • BEHAVIOURAL: DAVRANIŞSAL • ADVOCATE: SAVUNMAK • APPLIED: UYGULAMALI • MAINSTREAM: ANA AKIM • HETERODOX: DÜZENE KARŞI • DESCRIBE: TANIMLAMAK 24

History of Economics • There a variety of modern definitions of economics; some reflect

History of Economics • There a variety of modern definitions of economics; some reflect evolving views of the subject or different views among economists. Scottish philosopher Adam Smith (1776) defined what was then called political economy as "an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations", in particular as: • PHILOSOPHER: FİLOZOF • DEFINITION: TANIM • REFLECT: YANSITMAK • AMONG: ARASINDA • WEALTH: ZENGİNLİK • CAUSE: SEBEP OLMAK • WEALTH: ZENGİNLİK • PARTICULAR: ÖZEL • NATION: MİLLET 25

History of Economics • a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator

History of Economics • a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator [with the twofold objectives of providing] a plentiful revenue or subsistence for the people. . . [and] to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue for the public services. • STATESMAN: DEVLET ADAMI • LEGISLATOR: YASAMACI • PLENTIFUL: ÇOK BEREKETLİ • COMMONWEALTH: MİLLETLER TOPLULUĞU (İNGİLİZ) • REVENUE: HASILA • PUBLIC: KAMU • SUBSISTENCE: GEÇİM • TWOFOLD: İKİ MİSLİ 26

History of Economics • Jean-Baptiste Say (1803), distinguishing the subject from its public-policy uses,

History of Economics • Jean-Baptiste Say (1803), distinguishing the subject from its public-policy uses, defines it as the science of production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. On the satirical side, Thomas Carlyle (1849) coined "the dismal science" as an epithet for classical economics, in this context, commonly linked to the pessimistic analysis of Malthus (1798). • • • DISTINGUISH: AYIRT ETMEK SUBJECT: ÖZNE DISTRIBUTION: DAĞITIM SATIRICAL: YERGİLİ SIDE: YÖN TARAF DISMAL: SIKINTILI EPITHET: YAKIŞTIRMA LINK: BAĞLANTI KURMAK PESSIMISTIC: KARAMSAR COIN: SÖZCÜK TÜRETMEK 27

History of Economics • John Stuart Mill (1844) defines the subject in a social

History of Economics • John Stuart Mill (1844) defines the subject in a social context as: The science which traces the laws of such of the phenomena of society as arise from the combined operations of mankind for the production of wealth, in so far as those phenomena are not modified by the pursuit of any other object. • PHENOMENA: FEONOMEN • ARISE: ARTTIRMAK • MODIFY: DEĞİŞTİRMEK • PURSUIT: TAKİP • TRACE: İZLEMEK İZ SÜRMEK • MANKIND: BEŞERİYET • SO FAR: ŞİMDİYE KADAR 28

History of Economics • Alfred Marshall provides a still widely cited definition in his

History of Economics • Alfred Marshall provides a still widely cited definition in his textbook Principles of Economics (1890) that extends analysis beyond wealth and from the societal to the microeconomic level: Economics is a study of man in the ordinary business of life. It enquires how he gets his income and how he uses it. Thus, it is on the one side, the study of wealth and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man. • • • CITE: ATIFTA BULUNMAK EXTEND: GENİŞLETMEK UZATMAK BEYOND: ÖTESİ SOCIETAL: TOPLUMSAL ORDINARY: SIRADAN INCOME: GELİR THUS: BUNDAN DOLAYI PROVIDE: SAĞLAMAK, TEMİN STILL: HALA TEXTBOOK: DRS KİTABI WIDELY: GENİŞ ÇAPLI OLARAK 29

History of Economics • Lionel Robbins (1932) developed implications of what has been termed

History of Economics • Lionel Robbins (1932) developed implications of what has been termed "[p]erhaps the most commonly accepted current definition of the subject": • Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses • PERHAPS: BELKİ • IMPLICATION: UYGULAMA • COMMONLY: YAYGIN ŞEKİLDE • SCARCE: NADİR 30

History of Economics • Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that considers

History of Economics • Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that considers strategic interactions between agents, one kind of uncertainty. It provides a mathematical foundation of industrial organization, discussed above, to model different types of firm behaviour, for example in an oligopolistic industry (few sellers), but equally applicable to wage negotiations, bargaining, contract design, and any situation where individual agents are few enough to have perceptible effects on each other. In behavioural economics, it has been used to model the strategies agents choose when interacting with others whose interests are at least partially adverse to their own. • • • APPLIED: UYGULAMALI FOUNDATION: KURUM OLIGOPOLISTIC: OLİGOPOLCÜ WAGE: MAAŞ NEGOTIATION: MÜZAKERE BARGAIN: PAZARLIK YAPMAK PERCEPTIBLE: FARKEDİLEBİLEN INTERACT WITH: TEMAS KURMAK LEAST: EN AZ ADVERSE: TERS PARTIALLY: KISMEN 31

History of Economics • In this, it generalizes maximization approaches developed to analyse market

History of Economics • In this, it generalizes maximization approaches developed to analyse market actors such as in the supply and demand model and allows for incomplete information of actors. The field dates from the 1944 classic Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. It has significant applications seemingly outside of economics in such diverse subjects as formulation of nuclear strategies, ethics, political science, and evolutionary biology • • • GENERALIZE: GENELLEMEK INCOMPLETE: TAM OLMAYAN ALLOW: İZİN VERMEK SEEMINGLY: GÖRÜNÜRDE DIVERSE: ÇEŞİTLİ OUTSIDE: DIŞTAN FORMULATION: FORMÜLLEŞTİRME EVOLUTIONARY: EVRİMCİ SIGNIFICANT: ÖNEMLİ SUPPLY: ARZ-ARZ ETMEK DEMAND: TALEP-TALEP ETMEK APPLICATION: UYGULAMA 32

History of Economics • Some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in

History of Economics • Some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in failing to limit its subject matter to analysis of markets. From the 1960 s, however, such comments abated as the economic theory of maximizing behaviour and rationalchoice modelling expanded the domain of the subject to areas previously treated in other fields. There are other criticisms as well, such as in scarcity not accounting for the macroeconomics of high unemployment • • • SUBSEQUENT: SONRADAN GELEN COMMENT: YORUM FAILING: ZAYIFLIK-ZAYIFLAMAK MATTER: KONU ABATE: ÇEKİLMEK EXPAND: GENİŞLETMEK DOMAIN: ALAN ÇALIŞMA ALANI TREAT: MUAMELE ETMEK ACCOUNT FOR: HESAP VERMEK CRITICIZE: ELEŞTİRMEK OVERLY BROAD: FAZLASIYLA GENİŞ ÇAPTA 33

History of Economics • Milton Friedman effectively took many of the basic principles set

History of Economics • Milton Friedman effectively took many of the basic principles set forth by Adam Smith and the classical economists and modernized them. One example of this is his article in the 13 September 1970 issue of The New York Times Magazine, in which he claims that the social responsibility of business should be "to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits. . . (through) open and free competition without deception or fraud. • • MODERNIZE: MODERNİZE TMEK CLAIM: İDDİA ETMEK ENGAGE IN: DAHİL OLMAK PROFIT: KAR COMPETITION: REKABET DECEPTION: ALDATMA FRAUD: SAHTEKARLIK SET FORTH: ÖNGÖRMEK 34

History of Economics • In 1988, Marilyn Waring published the book If Women Counted,

History of Economics • In 1988, Marilyn Waring published the book If Women Counted, in which she argues that the discipline of economics ignores women's unpaid work and the value of nature; according to Julie A. Nelson, If Women Counted "showed exactly how the unpaid work traditionally done by women has been made invisible within national accounting systems" and "issued a wake-up call to issues of ecological sustainability. • • PUBLISH: BASMAK ARGUE: İDDİA ETMEK IGNORE: GÖRMEZDEN GELMEK UNPAID: ÖDENMEMİŞ INVISIBLE: GÖRÜNMEZ WAKE-UP: UYANMAK ISSUE: KONU ECOLOGICAL: EKOLOJİK 35

History of Economics • A 2002 International Monetary Fund study looked at "consensus forecasts"

History of Economics • A 2002 International Monetary Fund study looked at "consensus forecasts" (the forecasts of large groups of economists) that were made in advance of 60 different national recessions in the 1990 s: in 97% of the cases the economists did not predict the contraction a year in advance. On those rare occasions when economists did successfully predict recessions, they significantly underestimated their severity • FORECAST: TAHMİN ETMEKKEHANETTE BULUNMAK • CONSENSUS: FİKİR BİRLİĞİ • RECESSION: DURGUNLUK • PREDICT: TAHMİN ETMEK • CONTRADICTION: AYKIRILIK • RARE: NADİR • OCCASION: FIRSAT • SIGNIFICANTLY: HAYATİ OLARAK • UNDERESTIMATE: ALTTAN ALMAK, KÜÇÜMSEMEK • SEVERITY: ŞİDDET 36

International relations • International relations (IR) or international affairs, depending on academic institution, is

International relations • International relations (IR) or international affairs, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science, an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, or an entirely independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. • DEPEND ON: BAĞLI OLARAK • INSTITUTION: KURUM • FIELD: SAHA • ENTIRELY: TÜMDEN • VARIETY: ÇEŞİTLİLİK • COURSE: DERS • HUMANITY: İNSANLIK 37

International relations • In all cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities)

International relations • In all cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities) such as sovereign states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs), and the wider world-systems produced by this interaction. International relations is an academic and a public policy field, and so can be positive and normative, because it analyses and formulates the foreign policy of a given state. • • • STATE: DEVLET WIDER: DAHA GENİŞ NGO: STK-SİVİK TOPLUM KURULUŞU MNC: ULUSLARARASI KURUMLAR IGO: HÜKÜMETLER ARASI ÖRGÜTLER 38

History of International Relations • As political activity, international relations dates from the time

History of International Relations • As political activity, international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides (c.  460– 395 BC), and, in the early 20 th century, became a discrete academic field (no. 5901 in the 4 digit UNESCO Nomenclature) within political science. In practice, international relations and international affairs forms a separate academic program or field from political science, and the courses taught therein are highly interdisciplinary. • • • DISCRETE: AYRIK AFFAIR: İLİŞKİ THEREIN: BURADA SEPARETE: AYRI HISTORIAN: TARİHÇİ WITHIN: İÇİNDİ 39

History of International Relations • For example, international relations draws from the fields of:

History of International Relations • For example, international relations draws from the fields of: technology and engineering, economics, communication studies, history, international law, demography, philosophy, geography, social work, sociology, anthropology, criminology, psychology, gender studies, cultural studies, culturology, and diplomacy. The scope of international relations comprehends globalization, diplomatic relations, state sovereignty, international security, ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, global finance, as well as terrorism and organized crime, human security, foreign interventionism, and human rights, as well, as, more recently, comparative religion. • • • DIPLOMACY: DİPLOMASİ GENDER: CİNSİYET SCOPE: SAHA COMPREHEND: KAVRAMAK SECURITY: GÜVENLİK TERRORISM: TERÖRİZM HUMAN RIGHT: İNSAN HAKKI PROLIFERATION: ÇOĞALMA SOVEREIGNITY: HAKİMİYET NATIONALISM: MİLLİYETÇİLİK INTERVENTIONISM: MÜDAHALECİLİK COMPARATIVE: KARŞILAŞTIRMALI 40

History of International Relations • The history of international relations can be traced back

History of International Relations • The history of international relations can be traced back to thousands of years ago; Barry Buzan and Richard Little, for example, consider the interaction of ancient Sumerian city-states, starting in 3, 500 BC, as the first fully-fledged international system • THOUSAND: BİN • CONSIDER: DÜŞÜNMEK • ANCIENT: ANTİK-ESKİ-KADİM • FULLY-FLEDGED: TAŞ TEŞEKKÜLLÜ 41

History of International Relations • The history of international relations based on sovereign states

History of International Relations • The history of international relations based on sovereign states is often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, a stepping stone in the development of the modern state system. Prior to this the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order. Contrary to popular belief, Westphalia still embodied layered systems of sovereignty, especially within the Holy Roman Empire. More than the Peace of Westphalia, the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 is thought to reflect an emerging norm that sovereigns had no internal equals within a defined territory and no external superiors as the ultimate authority within the territory's sovereign borders. • • • MEDIEVAL: ORTAÇAĞ AUTHORITY: OTORİTE ORDER: DÜZEN BELIEF: İNANÇ TREATY: ANTLAŞMA REFLECT: YANSITMAK TERRITORY: BÖLGE ULTIMATE: NİHAİ BORDER: SINIR 42

History of International Relations • The centuries of roughly 1500 to 1789 saw the

History of International Relations • The centuries of roughly 1500 to 1789 saw the rise of the independent, sovereign states, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. The French Revolution added to this the new idea that not princes or an oligarchy, but the citizenry of a state, defined as the nation, should be defined as sovereign. Such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state (as opposed to a monarchy or a religious state). • CENTURY: YÜZYIL • RISE: YÜKSELMEK • INTITUTIONALIZATION: KURUMSALLAŞMA • OLIGARCHY: OLİGARŞİ • CITIZENRY: TÜM VATANDAŞLAR • MONARCHY: MONARŞİ • OPPOSE: KARŞI ÇIKMAK • ARMY: ORDU • REVOLUTION: DEVRİM • TERM: TERİM • PRINCE: PRENS 43

History of International Relations • The term republic increasingly became its synonym. An alternative

History of International Relations • The term republic increasingly became its synonym. An alternative model of the nation-state was developed in reaction to the French republican concept by the Germans and others, who instead of giving the citizenry sovereignty, kept the princes and nobility, but defined nation-statehood in ethniclinguistic terms, establishing the rarely if ever fulfilled ideal that all people speaking one language should belong to one state only. • • • REPUBLIC: CUMHURİYET REACTION: TEPKİ STATEHOOD: DEVLET OLMA LINGUISTIC: DİL FULLFILL: TAMAMLAMAK BELONG TO: AİT OLMAK NOBILITY: SOYLULUK RARELY: NADİREN SYNONYM: ANLAMDAŞ INSTEAD OF: YERİNE 44

History of International Relations • The same claim to sovereignty was made for both

History of International Relations • The same claim to sovereignty was made for both forms of nation-state. (It is worth noting that in Europe today, few states conform to either definition of nation-state: many continue to have royal sovereigns, and hardly any are ethnically homogeneous. ) • ROYAL: ASİL • ETHNICALLY: ETNİK OLARAK • HOMOGENEOUS: TÜRDEŞ • CLAIM TO: İDDİA ETMEK • NOTING THAT: İFADE EDEREK 45

History of International Relations • The particular European system supposing the sovereign equality of

History of International Relations • The particular European system supposing the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas, Africa, and Asia via colonialism and the "standards of civilization". The contemporary international system was finally established through decolonization during the Cold War. However, this is somewhat over-simplified. While the nationstate system is considered "modern", many states have not incorporated the system and are termed "pre-modern". • • • CIVILIZATION: MEDENİYET CONTEMPORARY: ÇAĞDAŞ DECOLONIZATION: BAĞIMSIZLIĞINI VERME OVER-SIMPLIFY: FAZLA BASİTLEŞTİRMEK CONSIDER: DÜŞÜNMEK INCORPORATE: İÇERMEK PRE-MODERN: MODERN ÖNCESİ COLONIALISM: KOLONİLEŞME EQUALITY: EŞİTLİK EUROPEAN: AVRUPALI EXPORT: İHRAÇ ETMEK SUPPOSE: VARSAYMAK 46

History of International Relations • Further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence

History of International Relations • Further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence on full sovereignty, and can be considered "post-modern". The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states is disputed. "Levels of analysis" is a way of looking at the international system, which includes the individual level, the domestic state as a unit, the international level of transnational and intergovernmental affairs, and the global level. • • • FURTHER: ÖTE INSISTENCE: ISRAR DOMESTIC: MİLLİ TRANSNATIONAL: ULUSAŞIRI DISCOURSE: SÖYLEM 47

History of International Relations • What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was

History of International Relations • What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, and is dealt with in more detail below. IR theory, however, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the "I" and "R" in international relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of international relations from the phenomena of international relations. • DRAW ON: YARARLANMAK • CAPITALIZATION: SERMAYELENDİRME • DISTINGUISH: AYIRT ETMEK • UNTIL: - E DEK • DEAL WITH: İLE İLGİLENMEK • TRADITION: GELENEK • EXPLICITLY: AÇIKÇA • RECOGNIZE: TANIMAK • BELOW: ALTINDA • AIM TO: AMAÇ EDİNMEK 48

History of International Relations • Many cite Sun Tzu's The Art of War (6

History of International Relations • Many cite Sun Tzu's The Art of War (6 th century BC), Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (5 th century BC), Chanakya's Arthashastra (4 th century BC), as the inspiration for realist theory, with Hobbes' Leviathan and Machiavelli's The Prince providing further elaboration. • INSPIRATION: İLHAM • PROVIDE: TEMİN ETMEK • ELABORATION: DETAYLANDIRMA • CITE: ATIF YAPMAK • FURTHER: DAHASI 49

History of International Relations • Similarly, liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and

History of International Relations • Similarly, liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau, with the work of the former often being cited as the first elaboration of democratic peace theory. Though contemporary human rights is considerably different from the type of rights envisioned under natural law, Francisco de Vitoria, Hugo Grotius and John Locke offered the first accounts of universal entitlement to certain rights on the basis of common humanity. In the 20 th century, in addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism, Marxism has been a foundation of international relations. • • • DRAW UPON: YARARLANMAK PEACE: HUZUR, BARIŞ CONSIDERABLY: ÖNEMLİ ÖLÇÜDE ACCOUNT: HESAP HUMANITY: İNSANLIK FOUNDATION: KURUM FORMER: ÖNCEKİ THOUGH: FAKAT ENVISION: TASAVVUR ETMEK ENTITLEMENT: SALAHİYET-DEVLET TARAFINDAN SUNULAN 50