MESLEK NGLZCE I KISIM 10 1 Business A

  • Slides: 58
Download presentation
MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I KISIM 10 1

MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I KISIM 10 1

Business • A business (also known as an enterprise, a company, or a firm)

Business • A business (also known as an enterprise, a company, or a firm) is an organizational entity and legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural, legal, or a mixture of both who share a common purpose and unite in order to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific declared goals and are involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers. • A business can also be described as an organisation that provides goods and services for human needs. 2

A company • A company or association of persons can be created at law

A company • A company or association of persons can be created at law as legal person so that the company in itself can accept limited liability for civil responsibility and taxation incurred as members perform (or fail) to discharge their duty within the publicly declared "birth certificate" or published policy. • Because companies are legal persons, they also may associate and register themselves as companies – often known as a corporate group. When the company closes it may need a "death certificate" to avoid further legal obligations. 3

economic activity • Businesses serve as conductors of economic activity, and are prevalent in

economic activity • Businesses serve as conductors of economic activity, and are prevalent in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and provide goods and services allocated through a market to consumers and customers in exchange for other goods, services, money, or other forms of exchange that hold intrinsic economic value. • Businesses may also be social nonprofit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social and economic objectives. 4

partnership • A business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated

partnership • A business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organized as a partnership. • Countries have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the various business entities. 5

entire market sector • The word "business" can refer to a particular organization or

entire market sector • The word "business" can refer to a particular organization or to an entire market sector (for example, "the finance business" is "the financial sector") or to all economic sectors collectively ("the business sector"). • Compound forms such as "agribusiness" represent subsets of the concept's broader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers of goods and services. 6

private-sector businesses • Typically private-sector businesses aim to maximize their profit, although in some

private-sector businesses • Typically private-sector businesses aim to maximize their profit, although in some contexts they may aim to maximize their sales revenue or their market share. • Government-run businesses may aim to maximize some measure of social welfare. 7

Sole proprietorship: • A sole proprietorship, also known as a sole trader, is owned

Sole proprietorship: • A sole proprietorship, also known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner operates the business alone and may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, including, for example, computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. 8

Partnership: • Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people.

Partnership: • Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business. The three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are: general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships. 9

Corporation: • The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has

Corporation: • The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned. They can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A privately owned, forprofit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either privately held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. 10

Cooperative: • Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business

Cooperative: • Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, and they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. 11

Limited liability companies • Limited liability companies (LLC), limited liability partnerships, and other specific

Limited liability companies • Limited liability companies (LLC), limited liability partnerships, and other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are usually not as protected. 12

Franchises: • A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to

Franchises: • A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. 13

A company limited by guarantee • A company limited by guarantee. Commonly used where

A company limited by guarantee • A company limited by guarantee. Commonly used where companies are formed for noncommercial purposes, such as clubs or charities. The members guarantee the payment of certain (usually nominal) amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be with or without having share capital. 14

A company limited by shares • A company limited by shares. • The most

A company limited by shares • A company limited by shares. • The most common form of the company used for business ventures. Specifically, a limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company. « • This type of company is common in England many Englishspeaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a • publicly traded company or a • privately held company. 15

A company limited by guarantee • A company limited by guarantee with a share

A company limited by guarantee • A company limited by guarantee with a share capital. A hybrid entity, usually used where the company is formed for noncommercial purposes, but the activities of the company are partly funded by investors who expect a return. This type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. 16

A limited liability company • A limited liability company. "A company—statutorily authorized in certain

A limited liability company • A limited liability company. "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, and limitations on ownership transfer", i. e. , L. L. C. • LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, and like a partnership it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member". 17

An unlimited company • An unlimited company with or without a share capital. A

An unlimited company • An unlimited company with or without a share capital. A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts (if any) of the company are not limited. In this case doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. 18

What is business sector? • In economics, the business sector or corporate sector is

What is business sector? • In economics, the business sector or corporate sector is "the part of the economy made up by companies". It is a subset of the domestic economy, excluding the economic activities of general government, of private households, and of non-profit organizations serving individuals. • An alternative analysis of economies, the three-sector theory, subdivides them into: [citation needed] • the primary sector (raw materials) • the secondary sector (manufacturing) • the tertiary sector (sales and services) 19

Agriculture • Agriculture, such as the domestication of fish, animals and livestock, as well

Agriculture • Agriculture, such as the domestication of fish, animals and livestock, as well as lumber, oil and mining businesses that extract natural resources and raw materials, such as wood, petroleum, natural gas, ores, plants or minerals. 20

Financial services • Financial services businesses include banks, brokerage firms, credit unions, credit cards,

Financial services • Financial services businesses include banks, brokerage firms, credit unions, credit cards, insurance companies, asset and investment companies such as private equity firms, private equity funds, real estate investment trusts, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, mutual funds, index funds, and hedge funds, stock exchanges, and other companies that generate profits through investment and management of capital. 21

Entertainment companies • Entertainment companies and mass media agencies generate profits primarily from the

Entertainment companies • Entertainment companies and mass media agencies generate profits primarily from the sale of intellectual property. They include film studios and production houses, mass media companies such as cable television networks, online digital media agencies, talent agencies, mobile media outlets, newspapers, book and magazine publishing houses. 22

Industrial manufacturers • Industrial manufacturers produce products, either from raw materials or from component

Industrial manufacturers • Industrial manufacturers produce products, either from raw materials or from component parts, then export the finished products at a profit. They include tangible goods such as cars, buses, medical devices, glass, or aircraft. 23

Real estate businesses • Real estate businesses sell, invest, construct and develop properties, including

Real estate businesses • Real estate businesses sell, invest, construct and develop properties, including land, residential homes, and other buildings. 24

Retailers • Retailers, wholesalers, and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by

Retailers • Retailers, wholesalers, and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumers; they make their profits by marking up their prices. Most stores and catalog companies are distributors or retailers. 25

Transportation • Transportation businesses such as railways, airlines, shipping companies that deliver goods and

Transportation • Transportation businesses such as railways, airlines, shipping companies that deliver goods and individuals to their destinations for a fee. 26

Utilities • Utilities produce public services such as water, electricity, waste management or sewage

Utilities • Utilities produce public services such as water, electricity, waste management or sewage treatment. These industries are usually operated under the charge of a public government. 27

Service businesses • Service businesses offer intangible goods or services and typically charge for

Service businesses • Service businesses offer intangible goods or services and typically charge for labor or other services provided to government, to consumers, or to other businesses. Interior decorators, beauticians, hairstylists, make-up artists, tanning salons, laundromats, dry cleaners, and pest controllers are service businesses. 28

What is a ministry? • A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a

What is a ministry? • A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration. Ministries have a bureaucratic structure. 29

Types • Different states have different numbers and names of ministries, but the Brockhaus

Types • Different states have different numbers and names of ministries, but the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary notes that all states have (often under different names) a Ministry of Interior, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a Ministry of Defense (which may be divided into ministries for land forces and the navy), a Ministry of Justice and a Ministry of Finance. Ministries called the Ministry of Education or similar are also common. 30

Cabinet • Ministries are usually immediate subdivisions of the Cabinet (the executive branch of

Cabinet • Ministries are usually immediate subdivisions of the Cabinet (the executive branch of the government), and subordinate to its chief executive who is called Prime Minister, chief minister, President, minister-president or (federal) Chancellor. 31

Organization of ministries • During the 20 th century, many countries increasingly tended to

Organization of ministries • During the 20 th century, many countries increasingly tended to replace the term "ministry" with words such as "department", "office" or "state secretariat". In some countries, these terms may be used with specific meanings: for example, an office may be a subdivision of a department. 32

THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE • The functions of the Ministry of Justice is laid

THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE • The functions of the Ministry of Justice is laid down in article 2 of the Law of 29. 03. 1984 No. 2992 on Organization and Functions of the Ministry of Justice. Accordingly, the functions of the Ministry are as follows: • a) Establishing and organizing the courts provided for by the laws; planning, establishing any kind of judiciary institutions in every level such as penitentiary and correction institutions, execution and bankruptcy offices and supervising, inspecting and developing these institution with regard to their administrative duties, • b) Submitting suggestions to the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors on abolishing a court or changing the jurisdiction of a court, • c) Exercising the power entitled by the laws to the Minister of Justice concerning bringing a public case before a court and carrying out the required procedures, • d) Performing the functions entitled by the Laws on Legal Profession Act and Notary Act to the Ministry, • e) Carrying out the services related to keeping criminal records, • f) Performing the functions entitled by the Turkish Trade Law and Regulation of Turkish Trade Registry to the Ministry, • g) Carrying out the procedures related to foreign countries in matters on judicial services, • h) Conducting the required studies on judicial services and making legal adjustments and expressing opinions, • i) Evaluating whether the draft bills and decree laws drafted by the Ministries are compatible with Turkish legal system and legislation technique before they are sent to the Ministry, • j) Regulating the enforcement and corrections procedures according to the related legislation, • k) Carrying out execution and bankruptcy procedures through execution and bankruptcy offices, • l) Performing the other functions entitled by the laws. 33

Ministry of Family and Social Policy • The Ministry of Family and Social Policies

Ministry of Family and Social Policy • The Ministry of Family and Social Policies (Turkish: Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı), established in 2011, is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for family affairs and social services. The ministry is currently headed by Fatma Betül Sayan Kaya. She assumed office on 24 May 2016. • The ministry features following branches of service: • Family and Public Services (Aile ve Toplum Hizmetleri) • Children Services (Çocuk Hizmetleri) • Disabled and Elderly Services (Engelli ve Yaşlı Hizmetleri) • Status of Women (Kadının Statüsü) • Social Aids (Sosyal Yardımlar) • Services for Casualty Relatives and Veterans (Şehit Yakınları ve Gazi Hizmetleri) 34

The Minister of European Union Affairs • The Minister of European Union Affairs of

The Minister of European Union Affairs • The Minister of European Union Affairs of Turkey is the government minister responsible for Turkey's membership negotiations with the European Union and is a member of the Cabinet of Turkey, leading the Ministry of European Union Affairs. • The position was formed on 29 June 2011 after Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won a third term in the 2011 general election. So far, there have been three ministers of European Union Affairs. • The Minister concurrently serves as the chief negotiator during accession talks with the EU. Minister now is Ömer Çelik. • The European Union (EU) is a supranational and intergovernmental union of twentyeight states and a political body. It was established in 1992 by the Treaty on European Union (The Maastricht Treaty), and is the de facto successor to the sixmember European Economic Community founded in 1957. Since then new accessions have raised its number of member states, and competences have expanded. 35

Ministry of Science Industry and Technology • Establishment of the Ministry of Science Industry

Ministry of Science Industry and Technology • Establishment of the Ministry of Science Industry and Technology; • Based on the authorization given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 3/6/2011 by the Council of Ministers. • Duties of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology; • To prepare and implement industrial policies and strategies, administrative and technical regulations for industrial products, • to keep the register of industrial enterprises, • to produce industrial statistics and analyzes, in line with the principles, targets and policies in development plans and annual programs, • and to publish industrial statistics and analyzes in the Official Gazette dated June 8, 2011 and numbered 27958 / 635 is • to fulfill other duties specified in the Decree of the Law on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology. 36

Ministry of Labour and Social Security • The Law on the Establishment and Duties

Ministry of Labour and Social Security • The Law on the Establishment and Duties of the Ministry of Labour (No: 4763) was published in the Official Gazette on June 27, 1945. • The duties of the Ministry was extended with the Law numbered 4841 which was published in the Official Gazette on January 30, 1946 • In 1974, Ministry of Social Security was established; Social Insurance Institution (SSK) and Social Insurance Institution for the Self-Employed (Bağ-Kur) was subordinated to the Ministry of Social Security. • Ministry of Labour and Social Security was formed in 1983 through the merger of the Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Social Security. • promote working life, ensure labour peace, take measures to improve health and safety at work, enhance circumstances which safeguard social security of people from all walks of society and increase employment, protect and maintain the professional and social security rights and benefits of Turkish citizens working abroad. • transform Turkey into a country where all employable people work in peace and in line with the rules, all those unemployed ultimately get ready for work and social security of all is duly safeguarded. 37

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment and Urbanization • The Ministry of Public Works was established on May 3, 1920 and the Ministry of Housing and Settlement was established on October 13, 1923 with the merger in 1983. On June 29, 2011 the name was changed to Ministry of Environment and Urbanism. 38

Ministry of Foreign Affairs • The Foreign Service of the Republic of Turkey is

Ministry of Foreign Affairs • The Foreign Service of the Republic of Turkey is founded on the well established traditions and legacy of Ottoman diplomacy with a long history. • The application of this commanding diplomatic tradition as an effective instrument was one of the leading factors which enabled the Ottoman Empire to reign over a vast geography for several centuries. • The foreign affairs of the Ottoman Empire were conducted by the “Reis-ül Küttap” (Head Secretary) until the 19 th Century. However, the “Reis-ül Küttap” was also entrusted with other functions such as maintaining the records and administering the correspondence of the State. In 1793, during the reign of Selim III, the first permanent Embassy was established in London and Yusuf Agah Efendi was appointed as the first Ottoman Ambassador. • Accordingly, the Ottoman Empire thereby adopted a diplomacy based on the principles of permanent representation and reciprocity in its diplomatic relations. The Ambassadors of the Ottoman Empire appointed to European capitals, while fulfilling their duties in respect to bilateral relations, also served as pioneers of modernization by accelerating the process of westernization and reform within the Empire by way of the information they transmitted to the Porte regarding the countries they were assigned to. 39

Ministry of Economy • Establishment of the Ministry of Economy; • Based on the

Ministry of Economy • Establishment of the Ministry of Economy; • Based on the authorization given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 3/6/2011 by the Council of Ministers. • Duties of the Ministry of Economy; • To assist in determining the main objectives and policies of foreign trade services and to develop and carry out the determined foreign trade policy; • To take and implement the measures necessary for the restructuring of economic activities in foreign trade and to carry out studies on the implementation and coordination of these measures in relevant public and private institutions and organizations; • To take all necessary precautions related to international trade of goods and services, including goods and foreign contracting, for the purpose of making foreign trade for the benefit of the country's economy; • The issue of Decree Law No. 637, dated 8 June 2011 and numbered 27958, • is to fulfill the other duties specified in the Decree Law on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Economy. 40

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources • To determine the short

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources • To determine the short and long term needs of the country for energy and natural resources, • to assist in the determination of the policies required for the project, • to plan and assist in the determination and determination of the general policy principles of these resources and • to give them the right to search, organize, keep their records and carry out other duties set out in the law of incorporation. 41

Ministry of Youth and Sports • Establishment of the Ministry of Youth and Sports;

Ministry of Youth and Sports • Establishment of the Ministry of Youth and Sports; Based on the authorization given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 3/6/2011 by the Council of Ministers. • The tasks of the Ministry of Youth and Sports are: • to identify policies to support the youth's personal and social development, • to enable young people to realize their potentials, • taking into account the needs of different young groups, to develop decision-making and implementation processes and proposals for effective participation in all aspects of social life, • to provide coordination and cooperation in the services of the institutions concerned with youth; • The issue of Decree Law No. 638 dated 8. 06. 2011 dated and 27958 numbered Official Gazette is to fulfill the other duties specified in the Decree of the Law on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Youth and Sports. 42

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock • Establishment of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock • Establishment of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock; Based on the authorization given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 3/6/2011 by the Council of Ministers. • Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock; • agricultural production, security and reliability, rural development, conservation of land, water resources and biodiversity, efficient use of agriculture, organization and awareness of farmers, agricultural support and development to carry out studies for the realization of the main activity subjects such as the management of agricultural markets and the management of seed markets; • to determine and monitor general policies for food, agriculture and animal husbandry. 43

Ministry of Customs and Trade • Establishment of the Ministry of Customs and Trade;

Ministry of Customs and Trade • Establishment of the Ministry of Customs and Trade; Based on the authorization given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 3/6/2011 by the Council of Ministers. • The duties of the Ministry of Customs and Trade are: • to assist and implement the preparation of the customs policy; ensuring and supervising the implementation of customs services in a timely, effective, efficient manner in accordance with established standards; • To help determine the main objectives and policies of domestic trade services, • to implement the determined trade policy and • to ensure the necessary coordination; • The Decree –KHK- / 640 issued on the Official Gazette dated 8 June 2011 and numbered 27958 is to fulfill the other duties specified in the Decree of the Law on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Customs and Trade. 44

Ministry of Interior • to protect the public order, • to organize the general

Ministry of Interior • to protect the public order, • to organize the general administration of the provinces, to supervise the local administrations as guardianship authority on behalf of the central administration and • to help these administrations • to develop with the legal measures taken from the administrative side, • to carry out the population and citizenship procedures of the people, This ministry, which is tasked with carrying out civil defense services in the field of natural disasters, fulfills these very important tasks undertaken by central and provincial organizations. 45

Internal Services of Ministry of Interior • • • Department of Civil Inspection Board

Internal Services of Ministry of Interior • • • Department of Civil Inspection Board Directorate of Strategy Development Legal Consultancy Research and Studies Center General Directorate of Human Resources Department of Training Department of Administrative and Financial Affairs Department of Information Technologies Department of EU Affairs and Foreign Relations Smuggling Intelligence Coordination Board Fund of Bail Department of Smuggling Intelligence Operation Data Collection 46

Civil Administration Services of Ministry of Interior • General Directorate of Provincial Administrations •

Civil Administration Services of Ministry of Interior • General Directorate of Provincial Administrations • General Directorate of Local Administrations • Governorates 47

Civil Registration and Citizenship Services of Ministry of Interior • General Directorate of Civil

Civil Registration and Citizenship Services of Ministry of Interior • General Directorate of Civil Registration and Citizenship • Queries • Services 48

Social Services of Ministry of Interior • Disaster and Emergency Management Center • Department

Social Services of Ministry of Interior • Disaster and Emergency Management Center • Department of Associations • Press and Public Relations • Bureau of Development and Implementation of Legislation and Administrative Capacity of Border Management 49

Security Services of Ministry of Interior • Turkish National Police • General Command of

Security Services of Ministry of Interior • Turkish National Police • General Command of Gendarmerie • Command of Coast Guard 50

Ministry of Development • Establishment of the Ministry of Development; • Based on the

Ministry of Development • Establishment of the Ministry of Development; • Based on the authorization given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 3/6/2011 by the Council of Ministers. • The duties of the Ministry of Development are as follows: • Determining the natural, human and economic resources and possibilities of the country and determining the economic, social and cultural policies and targets • to be followed; • To prepare the development plan, medium term program, annual programs, strategies and action plans by analyzing and working in the fields of macro economy, sectoral (social and economic) and regional development according to the objectives determined by the government; national and local level; • Decree-KHK / 641 published in the Official Gazette dated 8 June 2011 and numbered 27958 is to fulfill the other duties specified in the Decree of the Law on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Development. 51

Ministry of Culture and Tourism • to take measures to develop, market, encourage and

Ministry of Culture and Tourism • to take measures to develop, market, encourage and support tourism as well as to evaluate and evaluate the cultural values of the country, • to live, develop, disseminate, promote, evaluate and adopt historical values, to prevent the destruction and destruction of historical and cultural assets, to evaluate all possibilities of tourism, organizing and cooperating with public institutions and organizations related to culture and tourism issues and developing and cooperating with local governments, non-governmental organizations and private sector 52

The Ministry of Finance • The Ministry of Finance; to assist in the preparation

The Ministry of Finance • The Ministry of Finance; to assist in the preparation of fiscal policies, to implement the fiscal policy, to monitor and monitor the implementation. • Its mission is being a Ministry of Finance that develops, implements and monitors the fiscal policy in a participatory manner with all stakeholders. • Its vision is being a proactive and exemplary Ministry of Finance that does not compromise on fiscal discipline to support a strong and sustainable growth environment, the level of financial burdens and optimal distribution in the distribution, which improves social utility in the use of public resources, transparency and accountability. 53

Ministry of Education • to plan their education and training services in the Republic

Ministry of Education • to plan their education and training services in the Republic of Turkey, programming, implementing, • to keep under surveillance and supervision, Turkish citizens • to organize services related to education and training • to be held abroad and carry out further sheltering of higher education of youth in education and training issues, dietary needs and supported financially by to open all types of formal and informal education institutions, • to allow the opening of non-tertiary education institutions, • and to carry out other duties set out in the law of incorporation. 54

Ministry of National Defense Within the scope of the "Law on the Duties and

Ministry of National Defense Within the scope of the "Law on the Duties and Organization of the Ministry of National Defense" dated 31 July 1970 and numbered 1325, the Ministry of National Defense is responsible for the political, legal, social, financial and budgetary services of the national defense duties; Within the framework of the defense policy • to be decided by the Council of Ministers of the Armed Forces, • the services to receive troops in peace and war, according to the principles, priorities and main programs to be established by the Chief of Staff; weapons, tools and supplies of all kinds of logistic necessities; war industry services; health and veterinary services; construction, real estate, housing and infrastructure services; financial and commodity account inspections. 55

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Based on the authority given by Law No.

Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Based on the authority given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, the Council of Ministers decided on 29/6/2011. • Tasks of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs: • to create policies in forest protection, development, management, breeding and maintenance, fighting against desertification and erosion, afforestation and forestry related pasture rehabilitation; • To develop policies for conservation of nature, to provide protection, management, development, operation and management of protected areas, national parks, nature monuments, sanctuaries, wetlands and biodiversity and hunting and wildlife; • To fulfill the other duties specified in the Decree of the Law on Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs No. 645 issued by the Official Gazette dated July 4, 2011 and numbered 27984. 56

Ministry of Health • Ministry of Health; to improve the health conditions of the

Ministry of Health • Ministry of Health; to improve the health conditions of the country, to fight against the harmful effects of the individuals and the health of the community and to deliver the public health services and to plan and serve the health institutions in one hand. • The Decree-Law 663 regulates organization, duties, powers and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and affiliated institutions. The duty of the Ministry is to ensure complete physical, mental and social wellbeing for all. In this context, the Ministry administers the health system and sets health policies in order to: a) protect and improve public health and reduce and prevent disease risks, b) carry out diagnostic, curative and rehabilitative services, c) prevent entry of public health risks of international concern into the country, ç) improve health training and research, d) ensure availability, accessibility and affordability of reliable and quality drugs, special products, substances subject to national and international control, active and inactive ingredients used in the production of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and medical devices, e) achieve high-quality and efficient healthcare around the country by generating savings in and improving efficiency of the workforce and financial resources, distributing health workforce evenly across the country and ensuring collaboration with all stakeholders, f) plan and expand public and private health facilities at national level. For this purpose, the Ministry; a) sets strategies and goals, develops plans and regulations and acts as a coordinating body, b) collaborates internationally and with other sectors, c) provides guidance, monitoring, evaluation, incentives and audits and imposes sanctions, ç) plans and implements healthcare in emergencies and disasters, d) takes measures to eliminate regional discrepancies in healthcare delivery and improve general access to healthcare, e) provides direction to practices and regulations of relevant institutions and agencies related to factors and social determinants which directly or indirectly affect human health, provides necessary communications and opinions and imposes sanctions, f) takes any measure relevant to its duty and services. (g) The principles and procedures for setting drug prices are established by the Council of Ministers upon the proposal of the Ministry. 57

Ministry of Transport, Maritime and Communication • Based on the authority given by Law

Ministry of Transport, Maritime and Communication • Based on the authority given by Law No. 6223 dated 6/4/2011, it was decided on 26/9/2011 by the Council of Ministers. Tasks of the Ministry: • To determine, implement and update national policies, strategies and targets in coordination with the relevant institutions and organizations in the fields of development, establishment, operation and operation of transport, maritime, communication and postal services and services, and 655 published in the Official Gazette No. 28102 (repeated) are • to fulfill other duties specified in the Decree of the Law on the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications. 58