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MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE 2 DERSİ KISIM -9
History of the city • Towns and cities have a long history, although opinions vary on which ancient settlement are truly cities. The benefits of dense settlement included reduced transport costs, exchange of ideas, sharing of natural resources, large local markets, and in some cases amenities such as running water and sewage disposal. Possible costs would include higher rate of crime, higher mortality rates, higher cost of living, worse pollution, traffic and high commuting times. Cities grow when the benefits of proximity between people and firms are higher than the cost.
History of the city • The more complex human societies, called the first civilizations emerged around 3000 BC in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, India, China, and Egypt. An increase in food production led to the significant growth in human population and the rise of cities. The peoples of Southwest Asia and Egypt laid the foundations of Western civilization, they developed cities and struggled with the problems of organised states as they moved from individual communities to larger territorial units and eventually to empires.  Among these early civilizations, Egypt is exceptional for its apparent lack of big cities. 
History of the city • The growth of the population of ancient civilizations, the formation of ancient empires concentrating political power, and the growth in commerce and manufacturing led to ever greater capital cities and centres of commerce and industry, with Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia of the Hellenistic civilization, Pataliputra (now Patna) in India, Chang'an (now Xi'an) in China, Carthage, ancient Rome, its eastern successor Constantinople (later Istanbul).
History of the city • The roster of early urban traditions is notable for its diversity. Excavations at early urban sites show that some cities were sparsely populated political capitals, others were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus. Some cities had large dense populations, whereas others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor, such as economic benefit, fail to capture the range of variation documented by archaeologists
Middle Ages • In the remnants of the Roman Empire, cities of late antiquity at first gained independence, but lost their population and their importance, starting in Roman Britain and Germania. The locus of power in the West shifted to Constantinople and to the ascendant Islamic civilization with its major cities Baghdad, [b] Cairo, and Córdoba.
Middle Ages • From the 9 th through the end of the 12 th century, Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population approaching 1 million. Following the Byzantine–Ottoman wars and other conflicts, the Ottoman Empire gained control over many cities in the Mediterranean area, including Constantinople in 1453.
Middle Ages • During the European Middle Ages, a town was as much a political entity as a collection of houses. City residence brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord and community: "Stadtluft macht frei" ("City air makes you free") was a saying in Germany. In Continental Europe cities with a legislature of their own were not unheard of, the laws for towns as a rule other than for the countryside, the lord of a town often being another than for surrounding land. In the Holy Roman Empire, some cities had no other lord than the emperor. Some planned towns were created, in Britain by King Edward I to colonize Wales and in France, bastides, fortified cities designed on a regular plan.
MODERN • While the city-states, or poleis, of the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea languished from the 16 th century, Western Europe's larger capitals grew again as commercial hubs, especially following the emergence of an Atlantic trade. By the early 19 th century, London had become the largest city in the world with a population of over a million, while Paris rivaled the well-developed regionally traditional capital cities of Baghdad, Beijing, Istanbul and Kyoto. Bastion forts arose in an attempt to make cities defensible against strengthening military firepower.
MODERN • The Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, in present day Mexico, had an estimated population between 200, 000 and 300, 000 when the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in 1519. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws about administration, finances and urbanism. • Most towns remained small, so that in 1500 only some two dozen places in the world contained more than 100, 000 inhabitants. As late as 1700, there were fewer than forty, a figure that rose to 300 in 1900.
INDUSTRIAL • The growth of modern industry from the late 18 th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.
INDUSTRIAL • England led the way as London became the capital of a world empire and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for manufacturing. In the United States from 1860 to 1910, the introduction of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, fueling migration from rural to city areas.
INDUSTRIAL • Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health problems resulting from overcrowding, occupational hazards of industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitation, and communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera. Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape
19 TH CENTURY • The 19 th century saw the rise of public transportation, such as horsebuses, followed by horse trams. At the end of the 19 th century, electric urban rail transport (including trams and rapid transit) began to replace them, later completed with buses and other motor vehicles. • Street lights were uncommon until gas lighting became widespread in Europe in the early 19 th century. Fuel gas was also used for heating and cooking. From the 1880 s, electrification began, making electricity the main energy medium in cities until present day. • Modern water supply networks began to expand during the 19 th century
20 TH CENTURY • Growth of cities continued through the twentieth century and increased dramatically in the Third World (including India, China, and Africa), due to industrialization, active promotion of urbanization, and other factors.
20 TH CENTURY • Urban planning became widespread and professionalized. At the turn of the century, the "garden city" model became the icon of a selfcontained, comprehensively designed, residential and commercial settlement. Professional urban planners appeared in large numbers, not only to design cities, but to provide technical expertise to their administration.
20 TH CENTURY • Cities in the great depression of the 1930 s, especially those with a base in heavy industry, were hard hit by unemployment. In the U. S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty percent during 1900– 1990. Today the world's population is slightly over half urban, and continues to urbanize, with roughly a million people moving into cities every 24 hours worldwide.
20 TH CENTURY • During the 20 th century, car ownership has increased steady, parallel with suburban sprawl, highways and other development for the car. Awareness of ecology in the mid-20 th century created the environmental movement, which has addressed the need for sustainable development, especially sustainable development.
20 TH CENTURY • In the second half of the twentieth century, deindustrialization (or "economic restructuring") in the West led to poverty, homelessness, and urban decay in formerly prosperous cities. America's "Steel Belt" became a "Rust Belt" and cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Gary, Indiana began to shrink, contrary to the global trend of massive urban expansion. Under the Great Leap Forward and subsequent five-year plans continuing today, the People's Republic of China has undergone concomitant urbanization and industrialization and to become the world's leading manufacturer.
21 TH CENTURY • There is a debate about whether technology and instantaneous communications are making cities obsolete, or reinforcing the importance of big cities as centres of the knowledge economy. Knowledge-based development of cities, globalization of innovation networks, and broadband services are driving forces of a new city planning paradigm towards smart cities that use technology and communication to create more efficient agglomerations in terms of competitiveness, innovation, environment, energy, utilities, governance, and delivery of services to the citizen. Some companies are building brand new masterplanned cities from scratch on greenfield sites.