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Mental Health Intro. . . Mental Health- Wellness of the mind
Key Terms: l l Personality. Unique characteristics of a person ex: introvert, extrovert, aggressive, passive. Type A- High strung, easily irritated l Type B- Laid back, easy going l l Which is more likely to suffer from a heart attack? Self Image. Picture one has of him/herself based on experiences and what others have told him/her
Mental Health Philosophers l Abraham Maslow l Sigmund Freud l Erickson
Maslow l “Hierarchy of Needs” l These are needs that need to be fulfilled in order to live a healthy productive life
l l l Self Actualization- Need to be and do what the person was born to do. “Calling” If these needs are not met, the person feels restless, anxious, and unfulfilled. Esteem Needs- Need for self respect, confidence Social Needs- Need to escape loneliness, alienation, give and receive love, belong Safety and Security- Felt often in times of turmoil such as war Physiological Needs- Food, shelter, clothing
How do these basic needs affect things like overall health, and the way one cares for him/her self?
Maslow said. . . l Very few people will ever become truly self actualized. l He said that Abe Lincoln and Eleanor Roosevelt were.
Sigmund Freud l “Father of Psychoanalysis” l He believed that a person is who they are as an adult because of the things they experienced as a child. l Theories were largely based on sexuality and subconscious thoughts, as well as the defense mechanism of repression
Discovered the “talking cure” as a way of coping with problems l Dream analysis was used to study subconscious thought l Coined “psychosomatic illness”-physical illness related to psychological causes l
Eric Erikson Student of Freud l Specialized in child psychology l Harvard Professor l His Main theory: l A person’s personality develops throughout life, and is not based solely on childhood experiences. l Coined the term “identity crisis” l
Discussion… l Which has a bigger impact on personality, heredity or environment? WHY? l How are you building your identity? l Identify someone you believe is self actualized. Why?
What is a mental disorder? l. A person is unable to deal with the demands of life, has difficulty relating to others, can’t distinguish between fantasy and reality, lacks resiliency l Stigma associated with mental illness…
l l Stigma is a negative judgment based on a personal trait — in this case, having a mental health condition Mental illness is often thought to be the result of weakness Can be seen in negative comments or in fear of the person being violent Some of the harmful effects of stigma include: l l l l Trying to pretend nothing is wrong Refusal to seek treatment Rejection by family and friends Work or school problems or discrimination Difficulty finding housing Being subjected to physical violence or harassment Inadequate health insurance coverage of mental illnesses
Factors leading to mental disorders. . . l Environment- Pollution, traumatic experience l Organic- Physical ex. Brain tumors, drug use, chemical imbalance l Heredity- ex. depression
Anxiety Disorders l What Are Anxiety Disorders? When worry and fear interfere with normal functioning, it’s an anxiety disorder. Several types of recognized anxiety disorders exist. l They are the most common type of mental disorder in the US, affecting 18% of adults l
Causes. . . l l Chronic Stress Anxiety may be caused by a mental condition, a physical condition, the effects of drugs, or from a combination of these.
Panic Disorder l In addition to anxiety, common symptoms of panic disorders are palpitations (feeling your heart beat), dizziness and shortness of breath. l Panic attacks are sudden intense fears. Some people think they are having a heart attack or feel like they are going to die. l May last 5 -20 minutes l more women than men suffer from them
Causes of panic disorder: l Panic attacks and panic disorder may be caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals or a family history of panic disorder. They sometimes happen with no clear cause.
l Phobias- fear of a thing or situation. Usually come from past experiences l examples: Claustrophobia- fear of enclosed spaces § Arachnophobia- fear of spiders Treatments: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Desensitization: exposure to the source of anxiety repeatedly to desensitize the person to the object or situation they fear. § Medication §
l OCD (Obsessive compulsive disorder) Characterized by rigid behaviors including obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions. The person has fear that if he does not fulfill these compulsions, something bad will happen. l Examples: “checking and counting”, organizing and sorting, cleaning l
PTSD- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder l Anxiety disorder that develops after a terrifying event in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. l l Persistent frightening thoughts of the ordeal sleep problems feel detached example: Veterans returning war have been showing increasing numbers of cases of PTSD, also seen in abuse victims
Dissociative Disorders l Amnesia- Loss of memory- due to some type of trauma or head injury or traumatic event
l MPD/DID l Dissociative Identity Disorder l More than one personality develop in a person. Usually as a “defense mechanism”. Abused children sometimes develop to protect from the abuse. l Personalities usually exist without knowing that others are there. l The personalities are known as “alters” l The goal is to “reintroduce to each other”
Research shows l l l Traumatic memories are not processed in the same way that normal memories are. Instead they are “split off” and may erupt into consciousness from time to time. The affected person can not control these memories
Female to male ratio is 9: 1 l It’s not unusual for alters to have different genders, nationalities, sexual orientation or ages l Average # of alters is 2 -10, some people have reported over 100. l
Schizophrenia “Split Mind” l Breakdown in logical thought process l Biological disorder caused by chemical imbalances l Affects 1% of of population 18 & older l Most are not violent! l
Symptoms Can’t think clearlyl Delusions- “False Belief” l Delusion of Grandeur- belief that one is “bigger than they are” ex. President l Delusion of Persecution- Fear that others are out to get them. “Paranoia” l
Symptoms cont’d l Social Withdrawal l Hallucinations- Hearing or seeing things that are not present l “Hearing voices”
Treatment l l l Can be treated with medication Usually presents its self in the late teens, early 20’s for males and 20’s to 30’s for females. In rare cases can present in childhood. Medications can help to eliminate many of the symptoms and allow people to live productive, happy lives
Personality Disorders l Borderline personality disorder: l l l characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior 2 percent of adults, mostly young women A person with BPD may experience intense bouts of anger, depression, and anxiety that may last only hours, or at most a day. These may be associated with episodes of impulsive aggression, self-injury, and drug or alcohol abuse Unstable relationships with family and friends ranging from intense adoration to anger and dislike Often accompanied by impulsive behaviors such as excessive spending, binge eating and risky sexual behaviors.
Treatments l Psychotherapy Use of antidepressants and anti-psychotic medications l Recent Research Shows… l l Studies show that many, but not all individuals with BPD report a history of abuse, neglect, or separation as young children. Forty to 71 percent of BPD patients report having been sexually abused, usually by a noncaregiver.
Recognizing Illness. . . l Today it is much more likely people with Depression or other mental health problems, will get treatment. l l There is not as much STIGMA. Stigma- Negative generalizations l A person is “Crazy, Wacko, Insane”
Who suffers from depression? l l 1: 8 teens suffers from Depression Females are at higher risk l Higher risk: l Teens under stress, suffered loss, have learning problems are at greater risk.
Depression l An extreme feeling of hopelessness, and helplessness l Signs of depression: l Lack of motivation, change in sleeping patterns, change in eating patterns, Isolation, irritability, rage,
What is the difference between depression and feeling “blue”? l Depression, like any other mental illness, is something that goes beyond everyday feelings. l Mental Illnesses interfere with every day living
Treatments: l l l Combination of medication and therapy Antidepressants- work to correct chemical imbalances in the brain. 2 most common: l l SSRI (selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors) Tricyclics
Bipolar Disorder ( Manic Depression) l Characterized by extreme highs and lows. Manic state: A great deal of energy, happy, cleaning sprees, spending sprees l Depressive state: Feeling low, unmotivated, may be paranoid l
The states of Bipolar disorder. . . l Can change quickly or over a longer period of time.
Treatment for depression and Bipolar. . . l l l Counseling- With a mental health professional Medication- Medication is often used because these illnesses are strongly related to chemical imbalances in the brain. They tend to be very helpful. Combination of the two. This is usually the case.
Mental Health Professionals l Psychologist- Master’s degree in psychology. Counsels, diagnoses, tests. l Psychiatrist- Medical doctor. Counsels, diagnoses, and can prescribe medication.
Social worker- Master’s degree in Social work. Counsels, refers. Neurologist- A medical doctor that treats the brain and nerves. Usually after a trauma
l National Mental Health Association 2001 N. Beauregard Street, 12 th Floor Alexandria, VA 22311 Phone 703/684 -7722 Fax 703/684 -5968 Mental Health Resource Center 800/969 NMHA TTY Line 800/433 -5959 l American Academy for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 3615 Wisconsin Avenue NW Washington, DC 20016 www. aacap. org