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What Are Mental Disorders A mental disorder is an illness that affects the mind and reduces a person’s ability to function, to adjust to change, or to get along with others. Having the Blues? n Being Stressed Out! n Depressed over your girl/boyfriend breaking up with you. n
Causes of Mental Disorders n Life Crisis- shocking experience that causes high level of mental stress n Early or Recent Experiences n Environmental Stress (family, hereditary, factors that affect he brain) n Organic Mental Disorder (Chemical abuse- alcohol and drugs: physical illness- brain tumors, strokes, brain injuries, and syphilis)
Recognizing Mental Disorders • Mental health experts see abnormal thoughts, feelings, or behaviors as signs, or symptoms, of a mental disorder.
Schizophrenia n Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder identified by serious disturbances in thinking, mood, awareness, and behavior.
A Person with Schizophrenia n Split or breakdown in logical thought processes. n Unusual behaviors, thoughts, and actions n Feelings of grandeur or persecution n Needs professional help and medication
Positive Symptoms n n Delusions. These beliefs are not based in reality and usually involve misinterpretation of perception or experience. They are the most common of schizophrenic symptoms. Hallucinations. These usually involve seeing or hearing things that don't exist, although hallucinations can be in any of the senses. Hearing voices is the most common hallucination among people with schizophrenia. Thought disorder. Difficulty speaking and organizing thoughts may result in stopping speech mid sentence or putting together meaningless words, sometimes known as "word salad. " Disorganized behavior. This may show in a number of ways, ranging from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation.
Negative Symptoms Loss of interest in everyday activities n Appearing to lack emotion n Reduced ability to plan or carry out activities n Neglect of personal hygiene n Social withdrawal n Loss of motivation n
Complications n n n Suicide Self-destructive behavior, such as self-injury Depression Abuse of alcohol, drugs or prescription medications Poverty Homelessness Family conflicts Inability to work or attend school Health problems from antipsychotic medications Being a victim or perpetrator of violent crime Heart disease, often related to heavy smoking
Childhood Disorders n Attention- Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder n n n Forgetful in daily activities Easily distracted Difficulty in organizing tasks Does not seem to listen when spoken to Does not follow through on homework
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Childhood Disorders n Oppositional Defiant Disorder Loses temper n Argues with adults n Spiteful n Deliberately annoys people n
Autism impacts normal development of the brain in areas of social interaction and communication skills and behavior. n Difficult to communicate with others and relate to the outside world. n Occasionally, aggressive and/or selfinjurious behavior may be present. n
Autism n n n n Social skills Fails to respond to his or her name Has poor eye contact Appears not to hear you at times Resists cuddling and holding Appears unaware of others' feelings Seems to prefer playing alone — retreats into his or her "own world" n n n n Behavior Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand-flapping Develops specific routines or rituals Becomes disturbed at the slightest change in routines or rituals Moves constantly May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car May be unusually sensitive to
Tourette n Tourette syndrome is a neurological disorder in which you display unusual movements or make sounds over which you may have little or no control (tics). For instance, you may repeatedly blink your eyes, shrug your shoulders or jerk your head. In some cases, you might blurt obscenities.
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Anxiety Disorders n Anxiety Disorders -imagined fears that occur so often people cannot even enjoy life. n Generalized Anxiety Disorder -A person with this disorder displays intense worry, fears, or anxiety most days for at least six months.
Anxiety Disorders Continued n n Obsessive Compulsive Disorder- An unwanted thought or image that takes control of the mind is an obsession. Social Phobia- In social anxiety disorder, everyday interactions cause extreme fear and selfconsciousness. It may become impossible for you to eat with acquaintances or write a check in public, let alone go to a party with lots of strangers. If your life is disrupted by this kind of fear, you may have social anxiety disorder.
Panic Attacks n A panic attack is a sudden episode of intense fear that develops for no apparent reason and that triggers severe physical reactions
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder n People who survive a life threatening event may develop post-traumatic stress disorder. n n n Flashbacks Nightmares Insomnia
Phobia s irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid it. Arachnophobia- The fear of spiders. n Ophidiophobia- The fear of snakes. n Acrophobia- The fear of heights. n Agoraphobia- The fear of situations in which escape is difficult. n Trypanophobia- The fear of injections. n Social Phobias- The
Warning Signs n difficulty in getting out of bed n avoiding crowded places n the constant shaking of hands when nervous n neglect themselves
Mood disorders n Mood Disorders- moods that are extreme and interfere with daily lives.
Mood Disorders Cont’d Bipolar Manic Depressive Disorder- moods that vary from very high to very depressed. n Seasonal Affective Disorder n ( manic phase is very high) extreme joy at times of no reason n (depressed phase- very little energy; suicidal, professional help) n
Mania vs. Depression
Personality Disorders n n n Personality Disorderspersonality is so unusual, that it interferes with their daily lives. Narcissistic Personalityboastful, and conceited Passive- Aggressive Personality- Switches back and forth. n n n Avoidant Personalityno social contact Dependent Personalityinsecure Histrionic Personalitydraws attention to themselves with behavior.
Impulse control Disorder n People with an impulse-control disorder cannot resist the impulse, or drive, to act in a way that is harmful to themselves or to others.
Famous People Michelangelo n Ernest Hemingway n Kurt Cobain n Emily Dickenson n Abraham Lincoln n Charles Darwin n Ludwig Von Beethoven n
Eating Disorder n Mental disorder that reveals itself through abnormal behaviors related to food. n Anorexia- doesn’t eat enough food to maintain a healthy diet n Dieting gone wild
Anorexia Cont’d A person with Anorexia can “starve to death” n Clinical Depression & Suicide n Causes: n Low Self-Esteem n Troubled relationships n
Bulimia Cont’d Weight in their normal range n Health problems come with binging and purging. n n Kidney problems, dehydration, tooth and throat decay, lack of necessary vitamins Suicide and clinical depression n Bulimia usually starts with a diet and becomes an uncontrollable cycle n
Body Dysmorphic Disorder n is a somatoform disorder in which the affected person is excessively concerned about and preoccupied by a perceived defect in his or her physical features n Hypochondriac (physical and psychiatric)
Binge Eating n Uncontrollable urge to eat large amounts of food. Cannot stop eating when they are full n Excess weight and unhealthy dieting n Depression and guilt n Not being able to handle stressful emotions n
Clinical Depression n Defining Depression People with clinical depression may feel sad and hopeless for months. n Recognizing Depression n n. A person who has clinical depression will experience four or more of the symptoms nearly every day for at least two weeks.
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Risk Factors A parent or other close biological relative with a mood disorder n A major life change or a prolonged stressful situation n Being the victim of a violent crime or witnessing violence n Previous Bout of Depression or sense of hopelessness n
Self-Injury n Self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotions, stress, or traumatic events. n Cutting or Burning (common ways of selfinjury)
Facts of Suicide Third Leading Cause of Death among young people ages 15 to 24 n Second Leading Cause from 10 to 24 n Def: Intention of taking one’s own life n What are some causes of suicide? (Depression, stress, confusion) n 55% of all suicides are done with a firearm n Males are four times more likely to die from suicide than females n
Cluster Suicides n Cluster suicides are a series of suicides that occur within a short period of time in the same peer group or community.
Suicide Prevention n n n Recognize the signs of Suicide. Tell Others- share your knowledge with parents, teachers, or counselors. Stay with the person Be supportive Listen Intelligently Urge to get professional help
Signs Of Suicide “WORDS THAT WORRY”
Treatments for Mental Disorders Psychotherapy- supportive, behavioral, and internal n A psychiatrist is a physician who can diagnose and treat mental disorders. n A clinical psychologist is trained to recognize and treat behavior that is not normal. n School Counselor n Teacher or other Guardian n
Psychopharmacology. Anti-anxiety- benzodiazepines (valium, rohypnol Stimulants- adderall and ritailin Antidepressants- Zoloft, PAXIL, Prozac
Approaches continued Family Therapy- group therapy where the patient and the family meet for ways to interact with one another. n Behavior Modification- new behavioral approaches and patterns to react in different life situations. n