Membrane Structure Function Jobs of the cell membrane

  • Slides: 17
Download presentation
Membrane Structure & Function

Membrane Structure & Function

Jobs of the cell membrane Isolate the cytoplasm from the external environment Regulate the

Jobs of the cell membrane Isolate the cytoplasm from the external environment Regulate the exchange of substances Communicate with other cells Identification

Membrane structure Semi-permeable barrier l few molecules are allowed across while keeping the majority

Membrane structure Semi-permeable barrier l few molecules are allowed across while keeping the majority of produced chemicals inside the cell Phospholipid bilayer phospholipids aligned tail to tail Amphipathic l hydrophobic region forms between the hydrophilic heads on the inner and outer surfaces l http: //telstar. ote. cmu. edu/Hughes/tutorial/cellmembranes/orient 2. swf

Fluid-mosaic model~ Proteins (the mosaic) are embedded in lipids (the fluid) Phospholipids are not

Fluid-mosaic model~ Proteins (the mosaic) are embedded in lipids (the fluid) Phospholipids are not bonded to each other, which makes the double layer fluid http: //telstar. ote. cmu. edu/Hughes/tutorial/cellmembranes/bil. swf

Membrane structure Phospholipids~ membrane fluidity Cholesterol~ membrane stabilization Membrane carbohydrates ~ cell to cell

Membrane structure Phospholipids~ membrane fluidity Cholesterol~ membrane stabilization Membrane carbohydrates ~ cell to cell recognition l l l Oligosaccharides (cell markers) Glycolipids Glycoproteins Membrane proteins ~ transport / communication

Membrane Proteins 2 types: l l Integral proteins~ transmembrane proteins Peripheral proteins~ surface of

Membrane Proteins 2 types: l l Integral proteins~ transmembrane proteins Peripheral proteins~ surface of membrane

Membrane protein function: Transport Proteins – l regulate movement of substance Carrier Proteinsl "grabs"

Membrane protein function: Transport Proteins – l regulate movement of substance Carrier Proteinsl "grabs" certain molecules and pulls them into the cell Gated Channels – l similar to carrier proteins, not always "open" Enzyme activity – l control metabolic pathways Receptor Proteins – (Signal Transduction) l set off cell responses (release of hormones or opening of channel proteins) Recognition Proteins – l idenitfy cells to the immune system http: //trc. ucdavis. edu/biosci 10 v/bis 10 v/media/ch 03/membrane_proteins_v 2. html

Transport Proteins: Uniport - one molecule in one direction. Symport - Two different molecules

Transport Proteins: Uniport - one molecule in one direction. Symport - Two different molecules in one direction. Antiport - Two molecules in opposite directions. http: //highered. mcgraw-hill. com/sites/0072437316/student_view 0/chapter 6/animations. html#

Transport Across Membrane 2 types: l Passive transport • No energy l Active transport

Transport Across Membrane 2 types: l Passive transport • No energy l Active transport • energy http: //www. northland. cc. mn. us/biology/Biology 1111/animations/transport 1. html

Traffic of molecules across the membrane Pass freely: l l Hydrophobic molecules (Hydrocarbons and

Traffic of molecules across the membrane Pass freely: l l Hydrophobic molecules (Hydrocarbons and O 2) Small polar uncharged molecules (H 2 O and CO 2) Pass with help: l Ions ( H+, Na+, Cl-). Can’t pass: l Large polar uncharged molecules (sugar)

Passive Transport Diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane Diffusion ~ l l

Passive Transport Diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane Diffusion ~ l l molecules move from high concentration to low concentration down a concentration gradient Facilitation Diffusion ~ l assisted by proteins (channel or carrier proteins) Osmosis~ l the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane http: //www. stolaf. edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/osmosis. swf http: //www. bbc. co. uk/education/asguru/biology/01 cellbi ology/05 pathways/07 passivefacilitated/index. shtml http: //highered. mcgraw-hill. com/sites/0072495855/student_view 0/chapter 2/animation__how_diffusion_works. html

 A substance will diffuse from where it is more concentrated to where it

A substance will diffuse from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated, down its concentration gradient. Each substance diffuses down its own concentration gradient, independent of the concentration gradients of other substances. The concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives diffusion. Diffusion Movie

Water balance Osmoregulation~ control of water balance Solution~ mix of solute (dissolved) and a

Water balance Osmoregulation~ control of water balance Solution~ mix of solute (dissolved) and a solvent (dissolving) Hypertonic~ solution with higher concentration of solutes Hypotonic~ solution with lower concentration of solutes IMPORTANT: The hypertonic solution has a lower water concentration than the hypotonic solution Isotonic~ equal concentrations of solutes

Water balance in living cells Cells with Walls in environment: l Hypotonic = Turgid

Water balance in living cells Cells with Walls in environment: l Hypotonic = Turgid (very firm) l Isotonic = Flaccid (limp) l Hypertonic = Plasmolysis~ plasma membrane pulls away from cell wall Cells without Walls in environment: l Hypotonic = Lyse (explode) l Isotonic = Normal l Hypertonic = Crenate (Shrivel) http: //www. linkpublishing. com/video-transport. htm#Osmosis_-_Red_Onion http: //ccollege. hccs. edu/instru/Biology/All. Study. Pages/Diffusion_Osmosis/Elodeagif. swf

Specialized Transport Active transport~ movement of a substance against its concentration gradient with the

Specialized Transport Active transport~ movement of a substance against its concentration gradient with the help of cellular energy l Low High

Types of Active Transport Sodium-potassium pump l Actively maintains the gradient of Na+ and

Types of Active Transport Sodium-potassium pump l Actively maintains the gradient of Na+ and K+ ions across the membrane l Antiport l energized by ATP l Neurons use sodiumpotassium pumps Proton Pump l transports Hydrogen ions l Chloroplasts and http: //highered. mcgraw-hill. com/sites/0072437316/student_view 0/chapter 6/animations. html# Mitochondria

http: //multimedia. mcb. harvard. edu/media. html Endocytosis and Exocytosis~ secretion of macromolecules by the

http: //multimedia. mcb. harvard. edu/media. html Endocytosis and Exocytosis~ secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane Endocytosis~ import of macromolecules by forming new vesicles with the plasma membrane l Phagocytosis (solid) l Pinocytosis (liquid) l receptor-mediated endocytosis (specific materials) http: //www. johnkyrk. com/cellmembrane. html http: //highered. mcgraw-hill. com/sites/0072437316/student_view 0/chapter 6/animations. html#