- Slides: 12
Homologous Chromosomes • Homologous chromosomes contain the same genes, • one from each parent Ex: Two copies of chromosome 3, one from mother and one from father, form a homologous pair. This paternal chromosome 3 carries instructions for light hair L D Homologous pair after DNA replication: This maternal chromosome 3 carries instructions for dark hair Both have the gene for hair color, but the color itself may be different! L L D D
Chromosome Number All eukaryotic cells can be categorized as either… Diploid • Contain homologous pairs of chromosomes (di = two sets) • All body cells except sperm and egg are diploid • In humans, diploid chromosome number is 46 (23 pairs) • Can be written as 2 n Haploid • Contain only one of each chromosome (hap = half as much) • Only sperm and egg are haploid • In humans, haploid chromosome number is 23 (no pairs, only singles) • Can be written as n
3 How many chromosomes? 6 0 How many homologous pairs? 3 Haploid or Diploid? Diploid n 2 n or n? 2 n
MEIOSIS OVERVIEW Meiosis is the creation of sex cells, or gametes. It occurs in the testes of males and the ovaries of females. It results in eggs (females) and sperm (males).
Mitosis vs. Meiosis Mitosis • Produces identical copies of somatic cells (body cells) • Responsible for growth and healing • Produces 2 diploid daughter cells Meiosis • Produces unique gametes – no two are the same! • Responsible for making egg and sperm • Produces 4 haploid daughter cells
Phases of Meiosis • Like mitosis, meiosis also follows the PMAT phases • Unlike mitosis, meiosis goes through them twice (meiosis I and meiosis II) Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Meiosis Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I & cytokinesis Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II & cytokinesis
Meiosis I • In meiosis I, a reduction division occurs: chromosome number is halved from 2 n to n (46 to 23) • In metaphase I, homologous pairs line up at the equator • In anaphase I, the pairs are separated Meiosis I
Meiosis II Animation • Meiosis II looks identical to mitosis, except two cells are becoming four Meiosis II
Crossing Over When homologous chromosomes pair during meiosis I, crossing over may occur • Chromosomes come into contact, crossed sections are exchanged • Produces brand new combinations of genes
46 total in each 46 total 92 total 23 total in each Chromosome s replicate Homologous chromosomes pair up 1 st division – homologous chromosomes separate 2 nd division – sister chromatids separate
“FUN” FACTS Females are born with as many eggs as they need - Around 1 million. About 40, 000 will survive to puberty and develop one at a time each month. Males can produce sperm until they die, nearly 100 million per day, on average. Sperm live a maximum of five days. It takes only one sperm to fertilize one egg.